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Crotalus adamanteus

Crotalus adamanteus

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Viperoidea

Familia: Viperidae
Subfamilia: Crotalinae
Genus: Crotalus
Species: Crotalus adamanteus

Crotalus adamanteus Palisot de Beauvois, 1799: 368

Type material: not designated. [lost fide Gillispie (1992: 40)]
Type locality: “United States ... inhabitants of the south”, restricted to “Charleston, South Carolina” by Schmidt (1953: 230).

Primary references

Palisot de Beauvois, M. 1799. Memoir on Amphibia. Serpents. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 4: 362–381. BHL Reference page.


Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2022. Crotalus adamanteus. The Reptile Database. Accessed on 20 July 2020.
Hammerson, G.A. 2007. IUCN: Crotalus adamanteus (Least Concern). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T64308A12762249. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T64308A12762249.en

Vernacular names
English: Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake
español: Cascabel de Diamantes Oriental
suomi: Floridankalkkarokäärme
magyar: Gyémánt csörgőkígyó
Türkçe: Doğulu elmas sırtlı

The eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus)[3][4] is a species of venomous pit viper in the family Viperidae. The species is endemic to the southeastern United States. It is one of the heaviest venomous snakes in the Americas and the largest rattlesnake. No subspecies are recognized.[5]

Eastern diamondback rattlesnake at the Saint Louis Zoo
Detail of rattle

The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is the largest rattlesnake species and is one of the heaviest known species of venomous snake, with one specimen shot in 1946 measuring 2.4 m (7.8 ft) in length and weighing 15.4 kg (34 lb). However, other venomous snakes may rival this species in weight such as the much longer but more slender king cobra and the shorter but even bulkier Gaboon viper.[6][7][8] Maximum reported lengths for the eastern diamondback rattlesnake are 2.4 m (8 ft)[9] and 2.5 m (8.25 ft).[10][11] However, the stated maximum sizes have been called into question due to a lack of voucher specimens.[12][13] Males are typically larger than females, which is rare among snakes (females are usually larger than males).

Specimens over 2.1 m (7 ft) are rare, but well documented. Klauber (1998) included a letter he received from E. Ross Allen in 1953, in which Allen explains how for years he offered a reward of $100, and later $200, for an 2.4 m (8 ft) specimen, dead or alive. The reward was never claimed. He did receive a number of 2.1 m (7 ft) range specimens and some 2.4 m (8 ft) skins, but said such skins can be taken from specimens as short as 1.8 m (6 ft).[3] A 2.2 m (7.3 ft) specimen was caught and killed outside a neighborhood in St. Augustine, Florida in September 2009.[14]

The average size is much less. Specimens are rarely found over 6 feet in length. Lengths of 1.1 to 1.7 m (3.5 to 5.5 ft),[15] and 0.8 to 1.8 m (2.75 to 6 ft) are given.[16] One study found an average length of 1.7 m (5.6 ft) based on 31 males and 43 females.[17] The average body mass is roughly 2.3 kg (5.1 lb).[18] The average weight of 9 laboratory-kept specimens was 2.55 kg (5.6 lb), with a range of 0.8 to 4.9 kg (1.8 to 10.8 lb).[19][20] Few specimens can exceed 5.12 kg (11.3 lb), although exceptional specimens can weigh 6.7 kg (15 lb) or more.[21][22]

The scalation includes 25–31 (usually 29) rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 165–176/170–187 ventral scales in males/females and 27–33/20–26 subcaudal scales in males/females, respectively. On the head, the rostral scale is higher than it is wide and contacts two internasal scales. There are 10–21 scales in the internasal-prefrontal region and 5–11 (usually 7–8) intersupraocular scales. Usually, there are two loreal scales between preoculars and the postnasal. There are 12–17 (usually 14–15) supralabial scales, the first of which is in broad contact with the prenasal, and 15–21 (usually 17–18) sublabial scales.[13]

The color pattern consists of a brownish, brownish-yellow, brownish-gray or olive ground color, overlaid with a series of 24–35 dark brown to black diamonds with slightly lighter centers. Each of these diamond-shaped blotches is outlined with a row of cream or yellowish scales. Posteriorly, the diamond shapes become more like crossbands and are followed by 5–10 bands around the tail. The belly is a yellowish or cream-colored, with diffused, dark mottling along the sides. The head has a dark postocular stripe that extends from behind the eye backwards and downwards to the lip; the back of the stripe touches the angle of the mouth. Anteriorly and posteriorly, the postocular stripe is bordered by distinct white or yellow stripes.[13]
Common names

Other common names for this snake species include eastern diamond-backed rattlesnake,[5] eastern diamondback,[4] diamond rattlesnake, diamond-back rattlesnake, common rattlesnake, diamond-back, diamond(-patch) rattler, eastern diamond-back (rattlesnake), eastern diamond rattlesnake, Florida diamond-back (rattlesnake), Florida rattlesnake, lozenge-spotted rattlesnake, rattler, rattlesnake, southeastern diamond-backed rattlesnake, southeastern diamond-backed rattler, southern woodland rattler, water rattle, water rattlesnake,[17] and diamondback rattlesnake.[3]
Geographic range

The eastern diamondback rattlesnake is found in the southeastern United States from southeastern North Carolina, south along the coastal plain through peninsular Florida to the Florida Keys, and west along the Gulf Coast through southern Alabama and Mississippi to southeastern Louisiana. The original description for the species does not include a type locality, although Schmidt (1953) proposed it be restricted to "Charleston, South Carolina" (USA).[2]
Conservation status

This snake species is classified as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List (v3.1, 2001).[1] Species are listed as such owing to their wide distribution or presumed large population, or because they are unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. The population trend was down when assessed in 2007.[23]

In North Carolina, the eastern diamondback rattlesnake is protected by state law and considered endangered within the state.[24] It is likely extirpated in Louisiana, having last been observed there in 1995. In fact some scientists and conservationists believe it may even be extirpated in North Carolina, having last been observed there in the early 1990s.[25][26]

This species is currently under review for being added to the Endangered Species List by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service owing to its recent decline,[27] and the current population represents only 3% of the historical population.[28]

The eastern diamondback rattlesnake inhabits upland dry pine forest, pine and palmetto flatwoods, sandhills and coastal maritime hammocks, longleaf pine/turkey oak habitats, grass-sedge marshes and swamp forest, cypress swamps, mesic hammocks, sandy mixed woodlands, xeric hammocks, and salt marshes, as well as wet prairies during dry periods. In many areas, it seems to use burrows made by gophers and gopher tortoises during the summer and winter.[13]
Eastern diamondback rattlesnake

The eastern diamondback rattlesnake frequently shelters by tunneling in gopher and tortoise burrows, emerging in the early morning or afternoon to bask.[29]

Like most rattlesnakes, this species is terrestrial and not adept at climbing. However, it has on occasion been reported in bushes and trees, apparently in search of prey. Even large specimens have been spotted as high as 10 m (33 ft) above the ground.[3]

It is also known to be an excellent swimmer. Specimens have often been spotted crossing stretches of water between barrier islands and the mainland off the Georgia coast, in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Florida Keys, sometimes miles from land.[3]

Individual disposition varies, with some allowing close approach while remaining silent, and others starting to rattle at a distance of 6–9 m (20–30 ft).[16] The rattle is well developed and can be heard from relatively far away. When threatened, it raises the anterior half of the body off the ground in an S-shaped coil, and can strike to a distance of at least a third of its body length.[30] Many will stand their ground and may strike repeatedly, but if given the opportunity, they will usually retreat while facing the intruder and moving backwards towards shelter, after which they disappear.[3][29][30]

One popular myth is that the eastern diamondback rattlesnake must rattle before striking. To the contrary, it is quite capable of striking while remaining completely silent.[31]

Hawks, eagles, and other snakes have been known to prey upon young and adolescent specimens of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake.

The eastern diamondback rattlesnake forages actively or lies in ambush for small mammals, especially rabbits and rice rats (Oryzomys). The diet also includes birds. Prey is struck and released, after which the snake follows the scent trail left by the dying prey.[29]

Because of their large size, adults have no problem eating prey as large as fully grown cottontail rabbits. As the juveniles are capable of swallowing adult mice, they do not often resort to eating slimmer prey, such as lizards. In fact, eastern cottontails and marsh rabbits (Sylvilagus) form the bulk of the diet in most parts of Florida. Squirrels, rats, and mice are also eaten, along with birds such as towhees and bobwhite quail. Other prey that have been reported include a king rail, a young wild turkey, and a mother woodpecker along with four of her eggs.[3] It also eats large insects.

Rattlesnakes, including the eastern diamondback, are ovoviviparous.[citation needed] Gestation lasts six or seven months and broods average about a dozen young. However, the young only stay with the mother 10–20 days before they set off on their own to hunt and find cover.

Females give birth to between 7 and 21 young at a time, usually between July and early October. Neonates are 30–36 cm (12–14 in) in length[32] and are similar in appearance to the adults, except for having only a small button instead of a rattle on the tip of their tails.[30]

The eastern diamondback can live beyond 20 years, but life expectancy in the wild is now typically shorter because of hunting and human expansion.
In the Universeum science center, Gothenburg, Sweden

Adult wild-caught specimens are often difficult to maintain in captivity, but captive-born individuals do quite well and feed readily on killed laboratory rodents. The eastern diamondback requires a dry and well-ventilated cage with a hide-box, maintained at a temperature of 23–27 °C (73–80 °F) for normal activity.[29]
An eastern diamondback rattlesnake showing one of its venomous fangs, Louisville Zoo, Louisville, KY

The eastern diamondback rattlesnake has the reputation of being the most dangerous venomous snake in North America.[32] While not usually aggressive, it is large and powerful. Wright and Wright mentioned a mortality rate of 30%, but other studies show a mortality rate of 10–20% (untreated).[17][33]

In proportion to its length, it has the longest fangs of any rattlesnake species, with calculations leading one to expect an 2.4-meter (8 ft) specimen would have fangs with a total length of over 25 mm (1 in). For comparison, a 1.5-meter (5 ft) specimen had fangs measuring 17 mm (2⁄3 in) in length.[3] It has a very high venom yield, an average of 400–450 mg, with a maximum of 858–1,000 mg.[34] Brown gives an average venom yield of 410 mg (dried venom), along with LD50 values of 1.3–2.4 mg/kg IV, 1.7–3.0 mg/kg IP and 14.5–10 mg/kg SC for toxicity.[35] The estimated human lethal dose is 100–150 mg.[34]

The venom contains a thrombin-like enzyme, "crotalase", capable of clotting fibrinogen, leading to the secondary activation of plasminogen from endothelial cells. Although the venom does not activate platelets, the production of fibrin strands can result in a reduced platelet count, as well as the hemolysis of red blood cells (see article on MAHA). Even with this defibrination, however, clinically significant bleeding is uncommon.[36] Nevertheless, the venom does exhibit high hemorrhagic activity.[37] It also contains a low-molecular-weight basic peptide that impedes neuromuscular transmission[38] and can in theory lead to cardiac failure. This peptide is similar to crotamine from C. durrisus terrificus, and makes up 2–8% of the protein found in the venom. In general, the venom can be described as highly necrotizing, mildly proteolytic and containing a large phosphodiesterase fraction. It stimulates the release of bradykinin that can result in severe pain, as well as profound, transient hypotension.[34]

Klauber described one case in which the symptoms included instant pain "like two hot hypodermic needles", spontaneous bleeding from the bite site, intense internal pain, bleeding from the mouth, hypotension, a weak pulse, swelling and discoloration of the affected limb, and associated severe pain. The symptoms were further described as strongly hemolytic and hemorrhagic.[3]

CroFab, ANAVIP, and Wyeth's ACP are effective antivenins against bites from this species, although massive doses may be needed to manage severe cases of envenomation. Generally, ACP is very effective at countering the defibrination syndrome that is often seen, but may do little for low platelet counts. Wyeth's ACP is no longer being manufactured.[34]

Hammerson, G.A. (2007). "Crotalus adamanteus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T64308A12762249. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T64308A12762249.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
Klauber LM (1997) [First published 1956]. Rattlesnakes: Their Habitats, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind (Second ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21056-5.
Fichter GS (1982). Poisonous Snakes: A First Book. Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-531-04349-5.
"Crotalus adamanteus ". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 November 2006.
Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9.
Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G (2003). True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2022-02-07.
Klauber LM (1972). Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Ditmars RL (1936). The Reptiles of North America: A review of the crocodilians, lizards, snakes, turtles and tortoises inhabiting the United States and northern Mexico. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co.
Powell R, Conant R, Collins JT (2016). Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Fourth Edition. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. xiv + 494 pp., 47 plates, 207 figures. ISBN 978-0-544-12997-9. (Crotalus adamanteus, p. 439, Figure 199 + Plate 46).
Jones, A (1997). "Big reptiles, big lies". Reptile and Amphibian Magazine. 51: 22–27.
Campbell JA, Lamar WW (2004). The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca and London. ISBN 0-8014-4141-2.
"Huge Rattlesnake Found in St. Augustine". WOFL Fox 35 News. 2 October 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
United States Navy (1991). Poisonous Snakes of the World. New York: US Government / Dover Publications Inc. 204 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
Conant R (1975). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. First published in 1958. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. xviii + 429 pp. + 48 plates. ISBN 0-395-19979-4 (hc), ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (pb).
Wright AH, Wright AA (1957). Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates, a division of Cornell University Press. (7th printing, 1985). 1,105 pp. ISBN 0-8014-0463-0.
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
Rice AN, Roberts TL, Dorcas ME (2006). "Heating and cooling rates of eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, Crotalus adamanteus". Journal of Thermal Biology. 31 (6): 501–505. doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2006.05.003.
Dorcas ME, Hopkins WA, Roe JH (2004). "Effects of body mass and temperature on standard metabolic rate in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus)". Copeia 2004 (1): 145-151.
2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1) at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 13 September 2007.
Hubbs, Brian; O'Connor, Brendan (2012). A Guide to the Rattlesnakes and other Venomous Serpents of the United States. Tempe, Arizona: Tricolor Books. 129 pp. ISBN 978-0-9754641-3-7. (Crotalus adamanteus, pp. 66-67, 115-116).
Louisiana Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (2010). "Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake". (last visited Mar. 9, 2011).
Docket No. FWS–R4–ES–2012–0006
Means DB (2011). Diamonds in the Rough. (unpublished manuscript).
Mehrtens JM (1987). Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
Ashton RE Jr, Sawyer-Ashton P (1981). Handbooks of Reptiles and Amphibians of Florida, Part 1, The Snakes. Miami, Florida: Windward Publishing Inc. 176 pp. LCCCN 81-51066. ISBN 0-89317-033-X.
Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake at Florida Museum of Natural History. Accessed 2 July 2008.
Behler JL, King FW (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 743 pp. LCCCN 79-2217. ISBN 0-394-50824-6.
Clinical Resource Center (Crotalus adamanteus)
Norris R (2004). "Venom Poisoning in North American Reptiles". In: Campbell JA, Lamar WW (2004). The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates. 870 pp. 1,500 plates. ISBN 0-8014-4141-2.
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Lee, 1972.

Further reading

Brattstrom BH (1954). "The fossil pit-vipers (Reptilia: Crotalidae) of North America". Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 12: 31-46 [35].
Brickell J (1805). "Miscellaneous chemical and medical facts, observations and conjectures". Philadelphia Med. and Phys. Jour. 2: 164 [164].
Conant R, Bridges W (1939). What Snake Is That?: A Field Guide to the Snakes of the United States East of the Rocky Mountains. ( With 108 drawings by Edmond Malnate). New York and London: D. Appleton-Century Company. Frontispiece map + viii + 163 pp. + Plates A-C, 1-32. (Crotalus adamanteus, pp. 145–147 + Plate 30, Figure 86).
Cope ED (1867). "On the Reptilia and Batrachia of the Sonoran province of the Nearctic region". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 18: 300-314 [307].
Cope ED (1875). Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptiles with a systematic list of higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution based on specimens contained in the United States National Museum. Washington, District of Columbia: Government Printing Office. 104 pp.
Ditmars RL (1936). The Reptiles of North America: A review of the crocodilians, lizards, snakes, turtles and tortoises inhabiting the United States and northern Mexico. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co. i-xvi + 476 pp.
Goin CJ, Goin OB, Zug GR (1978). Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company. xi + 378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4. (Crotalus adamanteus, pp. 155, 333, Figure16-23).
Hasiba U, Rosenbach LM, Rockwell D, Lewis JH (1975). "DIC-like syndrome after envenomation by the snake Crotalus horridus horridus ". New England Journal of Medicine. 292 (10): 505–507. doi:10.1056/nejm197503062921004. PMID 1167934.
Jan G (1858). "Plan d'une iconographie descriptive des ophidiens et description sommaire de nouvelles espèces des serpents ". Rev. Mag. Zool. Paris. 10: 148–157 [153]. (in French).
Jones A (1997). "Big reptiles, big lies". Reptile and Amphibian Magazine. 51: 22–27.
Klauber LM (1956). Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories and Influence on Mankind. 1st edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. 1,708 pp. [29, fig. 2.11].
Klauber LM (1972). Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind. 2nd edition. 2 Volumes. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
Lee CY (1972). "Chemistry and pharmacology of polypeptide toxins in Snake venoms". Annual Review of Pharmacology. 12: 265–286. doi:10.1146/ PMID 4339019.
Minton SA (1974). Venom diseases. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 235 pp.
Palisot de Beauvois AMFJ (1799). "Memoir on Amphibia. Serpents". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 4: 362-381 [368]. (Crotalus adamanteus, new species).
Schmidt KP (1953). A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles, Sixth Edition. Chicago: American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 280 pp.
Schmidt KP, Davis DD (1941). Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 365 pp., 34 plates, 103 figures. (Crotalus adamanteus, pp. 297–298).
Smith HM, Brodie ED Jr (1982). Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. New York: Golden Press. 240 pp. ISBN 0-307-47009-1 (hardcover), ISBN 0-307-13666-3 (paperback}}. (Crotalus adamanteus, pp. 202–203).
Sonnini CS, Latreille PA (1801). Histoire naturelle des reptiles, avec figures dissinées d'après nature. 4 Vols. Paris: Deterville. (in French). [for a discussion of the publication date see Harper F (1940). American Midland Naturalist 23: 692-723.].
Zim HS, Smith HM (1956). Reptiles and Amphibians: A Guide to Familiar American Species: A Golden Nature Guide. New York: Simon and Schuster. 160 pp. (Crotalus adamanteus, pp. 11–112, 156).


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