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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Elapoidea

Familia: Elapidae
Subfamilia: Hydrophiinae
Genus: Hydrophis
Species (49): H. annandaleiH. anomalusH. atriceps – H. belcheri – H. bituberculatus – H. brookii – H. caerulescens – H. cantoris – H. coggeriH. curtusH. cyanocinctusH. czeblukovi – H. donaldi – H. elegans – H. fasciatus – H. gracilis – H. hardwickii – H. hendersoni – H. inornatus – H. jerdonii – H. kingii – H. klossi – H. laboutei – H. lamberti – H. lapemoides – H. macdowelli – H. major – H. mamillaris – H. melanocephalus – H. melanosoma – H. nigrocinctus – H. obscurus – H. ocellatus – H. ornatus – H. pachycercos – H. pacificus – H. parviceps – H. peronii – H. platurus – H. schistosus – H. semperi – H. sibauensis – H. spiralis – H. stokesii – H. stricticollis – H. torquatus – H. viperinus – H. vorisi – H. zweifeli

Hydrophis Latreille, 1801

Type species: Hydrus fasciatus Schneider, 1799.


Disteira Lacépède, 1804: 199
Type species: Disteira doliata Lacépède, 1804, by monotypy.
Leioselasma Lacépède, 1804: 198
Type species: Leioselasma striata Lacépède, 1804, by monotypy.

Primary references

Lacépède, B.G. 1804. Mémoire sur plusieurs animaux de la Nouvelle-Hollande dont la description n’a pas encore été publiée. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle 4: 184–211. BHL Reference page.


Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2021. Hydrophis . The Reptile Database. Accessed on 1 June 2021.

Vernacular names
English: Sea Snakes
日本語: ウミヘビ属

Hydrophis is a genus of sea snakes. They are typically found in Indo-Australian and Southeast Asian waters. Currently, around 36 species are recognized.[1]

Systematics and classification

There are more than 30 recognized species in the genus.[1]

Species Authority Subsp.* Common name Geographic range
H. annandalei (Laidlaw, 1901) 0 bighead sea snake, Annandale's sea snake Indian Ocean
H. anomalus Schmidt, 1852 0 anomalous sea snake South Chinese Sea, Indian Ocean
H. atriceps Günther, 1864 0 black-headed sea snake
H. belcheri (Gray, 1849) 0 Belcher's sea snake Queensland and New Territories, Australia
H. bituberculatus W. Peters, 1873 0 Peters' Sea Snake Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka, Thailand)
H. brookii Günther, 1872 0 Brooke's sea snake
H. caerulescens (Shaw, 1802) 2 dwarf sea snake Queensland, Australia
H. cantoris Günther, 1864 0 Cantor's narrow-headed sea snake, Cantor's small-headed sea snake
H. coggeri (Kharin, 1984) 0 slender-necked sea snake, Cogger's sea snake[2] Western Australia
H. curtus (Shaw, 1802) 0 Shaw's sea snake, Short sea snake, Hardwicke's sea snake, spine-bellied sea snake
H. cyanocinctus Daudin, 1803 0 annulated sea snake, blue-banded sea snake
H. czeblukovi (Kharin, 1984) 0 fine-spined sea snake
H. donaldi[3] Ukuwela, K. Sanders
& B. Fry, 2012
rough-scaled sea snake Northern Australia
H. elegans (Gray, 1842) 0 elegant sea snake
H. fasciatus (Schneider, 1799) 0 striped sea snake
H. gracilis (Shaw, 1802) 0 common small-headed sea snake, graceful small-headed sea snake, narrow-headed sea snake, slender sea snake
H. hardwickii (Gray, 1834) 0 Hardwicke's spine-bellied sea snake
H. inornatus (Gray, 1849) 0 plain sea snake Western Australia
H. jerdonii (Gray, 1849) 2 Jerdon's sea snake Indian Ocean
H. kingii Boulenger, 1896 0 King's sea snake
H. klossi Boulenger, 1912 0 Kloss' sea snake
H. laboutei A. Rasmussen & Ineich, 2000 0 Laboute's sea snake[2] New Caledonia
H. lamberti M.A. Smith, 1917 0 Lambert's sea snake
H. lapemoides (Gray, 1849) 0 Persian Gulf sea snake
H. macdowelli Kharin, 1983 0 small-headed sea snake, McDowell's sea snake Western Australia
H. major (Shaw, 1802) 0 greater sea snake, olive-headed sea snake
H. mamillaris (Daudin, 1803) 0 Bombay sea snake
H. melanocephalus Gray, 1849 0 sea snake
H. melanosoma Günther, 1864 0 black-banded robust sea snake
H. nigrocinctus Daudin, 1803 0 black-banded sea snake
H. obscurus Daudin, 1803 0 estuarine sea snake, Russel's sea snake
H. ocellatus (Gray, 1849) 0 spotted sea snake
H. ornatus (Gray, 1842) 4 sea snake
H. pacificus Boulenger, 1896 0 large-headed sea snake
H. parviceps M.A. Smith, 1935 0 Smith's small-headed sea snake
H. peronii (A.M.C. Duméril, 1853) 0 Peron's sea snake
H. platurus Linnaeus, 1766 0 yellow-bellied sea snake
H. schistosus Daudin, 1803 0 Beaked Sea Snake Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf to Pacific Ocean[4][5]
H. sibauensis A. Rasmussen, Auliya
& W. Böhme, 2001
0 Kalimantan sea snake
H. spiralis (Shaw, 1802) 0 yellow sea snake
H. stokesii (Gray, 1846) 0 Stokes' sea snake, Stokes's sea snake
H. stricticollis Günther, 1864 0 collared sea snake
H. torquatus Günther, 1864 2 west coast black-headed sea snake
H. viperinus Schmidt, 1852 0 Viperine Sea Snake Persian Gulf and Western Indian Ocean to Western Pacific Ocean[6]
H. vorisi Kharin, 1984 0 Estuarine sea snake Torres Strait, Queensland
H. walli (Kharin, 1989) 0 Wall's sea snake

[7] *) Not including the nominate subspecies (typical form).

Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than Hydrophis.
See also

Sea snake


"Hydrophis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 7 September 2007.
Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Hydrophis coggeri, p. 56; H. laboutei, p. 149).
"Spiny, Venomous New Sea Snake Discovered—"Something Special"". Retrieved March 6, 2012.
Rasmussen, A. (15 February 2009). "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Hydrophis schistosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
"Hydrophis schistosus".
Rasmussen, A. (15 February 2009). "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Hydrophis viperinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-02-19. (downloaded Feb. 18,2010.)

Further reading
Zug, George R.; Vitt, Laurie J.; Caldwell, Janalee P. (May 2001). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (Second ed.). Academic Press. p. 630. ISBN 0-12-782622-X.
Uetz, Peter. "Family Elapidae (cobras, coral snakes, and seasnakes etc.)". The Reptile Database. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. Retrieved 2007-09-07.


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