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Oxybelis fulgidus

Oxybelis fulgidus (Source)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea

Familia: Colubridae
Subfamilia: Colubrinae
Genus: Oxybelis
Species: Oxybelis fulgidus

Oxybelis fulgidus (Daudin 1803)

Holotype: ?MNHN. [unlocated fide Ineich pers. com.]
Type locality: “Saint-Domingue, dans les environs du Portau-Prince”.


Coluber fulgidus Daudin 1803: 352 [original combination]
Dryophis fulgidus — Fitzinger, 1826: 60 [subsequent combination]
Oxybelis fulgidus — Duméril, 1853: 487 [subsequent combination]


Dryiophis catesbyi Schlegel 1837: 252 [synonymised by Boulenger (1896: 191)]
Syntypes: MNHM and RMNH.
Type locality: “provinces méridionales des États-Unis de l'Amérique de Nord”, “Martinique” and “Cayenne”.

Primary references

Daudin, F.M. 1803. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, des reptiles : ouvrage faisant suite à l'Histoire naturelle générale et particulière, composée par Leclerc de Buffon, et rédigée par C.S. Sonnini. Tome Sixième. L'Imprimerie de F. Dufart: Paris. 447 pp. + plates LXXI–LXXX. BHL Reference page.
Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. Volume 2. M.H. Schonekat: Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 606 pp. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp.
Gorzula Stefan & Senaris J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0.


Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2021. Oxybelis fulgidus. The Reptile Database. Accessed on 13 March 2021.
Gutiérrez-Cárdenas, P., Rivas, G. & Nogueira, C. 2019. IUCN: Oxybelis fulgidus (Least Concern). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T198389A2523790. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T198389A2523790.en

Vernacular names
English: Green Vine Snake

Oxybelis fulgidus, commonly known as the green vine snake or the flatbread snake[2] (not to be confused with green-colored species in the genus Ahaetulla, which are also referred as "green vine snake"), is a species of long, slender, arboreal colubrid snake, which is endemic to Central America and northern South America.

Common names

Common names used in South America for this species include bejuca lora, bejuquilla verde, cipo, and cobra bicuda.[3]
Geographic range

It is found in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela.[4]


This snake is very slender, roughly 2 cm (0.79 in) thick, and may attain a total length of about 1.5–2 m (59–79 in). The tail is long and very delicate, but mostly used to hold on while reaching for prey. The head is aerodynamically shaped and very pointy, the mouth is very large and extends almost the whole length of the head. The tongue is long and green; when in use it is kept outside the mouth and moved up and down. this behavior is reflected in other species of vine snake and it is believed that they are using their tongues as sights the way a cat uses its whiskers, as they move very quickly through branches and brush.

It is bright green dorsally, and yellowish green ventrally and on the upper lip. There is a narrow yellowish-white stripe along each side of the belly and tail.[1]

Snout very prominent, about three times as long as the diameter of the eye. No loreal, prefrontal contacting 2 or 3 upper labials. 9-10 upper labials, 4th, 5th, and 6th (or 5th, 6th, and 7th) entering the eye. Temporals very large, 1 + 2.[1]

Dorsal scales weakly keeled, arranged in 17 rows at midbody. Ventrals 198-217; anal plate divided; subcaudals 139-165, also divided.[1]
Catching prey

The green vine snake stays high on trees and looks down to the ground. When a mouse, lizard or nest is found, the snake follows the prey a short distance and smells it carefully. If the snake is content with it, it bites into the head and lifts the prey 20–40 cm (8–15.5 in) from the ground. With this the snake prevents the prey from using its physical strength. The vine snake has two larger upper teeth at the back of its mouth; these teeth permit the toxic saliva to penetrate the wounds and to immobilize the prey. Then it is rapidly swallowed. Once the prey is completely in the snake's body, the vine snake searches for a resting place, usually in the highest point of a tree. The venom of Oxybelis fulgidus is fast acting on small animals, but has little or no effect on humans. Envenomation of human beings is rare as the rear fangs require the snake to grab and chew to get its venom in, something most people will not stand for. In the rare instance of human envenomation, slight tingling to temporary numbness at the site of the bite is reported. As with all venomous creatures, serious allergic reactions are possible so caution should still be taken when handling these snakes.[5]
Behavior in captivity
Vine snakes must be kept in large terrariums with a height of at least 2 m (79 in) and a surface of 6–16 square meters (65–172 square feet). The behavior towards humans is neutral and the snake usually goes to the other end of the terrarium. Some adapt very well and even come closer. Unlike their Asian look-alikes, these snakes will readily take mice and some are even large enough to eat rats. This fact makes them a prized choice among reptile collectors. Captive life spans are estimated at 9–15 years.


Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the Colubridæ (Opisthoglyphæ and Proteroglyphæ), ... Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I.- XXV. (Oxybelis fulgidus, pp. 191-192.)
Discovery [@Discovery] (5 December 2016). "This is the green vine snake, also known as the flatbread snake" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
Freiberg, M. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications. Hong Kong. 189 pp. ISBN 0-87666-912-7. (Oxybelis fulgidus, pp. 104, 137 + photographs on pp. 134-135.)
The Reptile Database.

Mackessy, S.P. (2009). Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles. CRC Press. p. 6. ISBN 9781420008661. Retrieved 13 April 2015.

Further reading

Daudin, F.M. 1803. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles. Volume 6. F. Dufart. Paris. 365 pp. (Coluber fulgidus, p. 352 + Plate LXXX.)


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