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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea

Familia: Colubridae
Subfamilia: Lamprophiinae
Genus: Stenophis
Species: S. arctifasciatus – S. betsileanus – S. capuroni – S. carleti – S. citrinus – S. gaimardi – S. granuliceps – S. guentheri – S. iarakaensis – S. inopinae – S. inornatus – S. jaosoloa – S. pseudogranuliceps – S. tulearensis – S. variabilis


Stenophis is a genus of Madagascan arboreal snakes, part of the family Lamprophiidae. Species of Stenophis typically have large heads relative to their body size, and their bodies are elongated and often thin.[1] The genus includes both viviparous and oviparous species.[2] They usually have prolate pupils.


Stenophis was previously considered to be part of the genus Lycodryas until the mid-1990s.[1]

A phylogenetic analysis in 2008 found that the genus is polyphyletic,[3] and a 2010 study proposed three monophyletic genera of the snakes currently in Stenophis and Lycodryas: Lycodryas (with Stenophis as a junior synonym), Phisalixella, and Parastenophis.[4]

Known species of Stenophis include:[1]

Stenophis arctifasciatus (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
= Phisalixella arctifasciata (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
Stenophis betsileanus (Günther, 1880) = Parastenophis betsileanus (Günther, 1880)
Stenophis carleti Domergue, 1995 = Lycodryas carleti (Domergue, 1995)
Stenophis citrinus Domergue, 1995 = Lycodryas citrinus (Domergue, 1995)
Stenophis gaimardi (Schlegel, 1837) = Lycodryas gaimardi (Schlegel, 1837)
Stenophis granuliceps (Boettger, 1877) = Lycodryas granuliceps (Boettger, 1877)
Stenophis guentheri Boulenger, 1896 = Lycodryas guentheri (Boulenger, 1896)
Stenophis iarakaensis Domergue, 1995 = Phisalixella iarakaensis (Domergue, 1995)
Stenophis inopinae Domergue, 1995 = Lycodryas inopinae (Domergue, 1995)
Stenophis inornatus Boulenger, 1896 = Lycodryas inornatus (Boulenger, 1896)
Stenophis jaosoloa Domergue, 1995 = (is a junior synonym of ) Phisalixella arctifasciata (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
Stenophis pseudogranuliceps Domergue, 1995 = Lycodryas pseudogranuliceps (Domergue, 1995)
Stenophis tulearensis Domergue, 1995 = Phisalixella tulearensis (Domergue, 1995)
Stenophis variabilis Boulenger, 1896 = Phisalixella variabilis (Boulenger, 1896)

Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a different genus.

Vences, Miguel; Glaw, Frank; Mercurio, Vincenzo; Andreone, Franco. "Review of the Malagasy tree snakes of the genus Stenophis (Colubridae)". Salamandra, Rheinbach, 30.06.2004, 40 (2): 161-179. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde e.V.
Vitt, Laurie J.; Caldwell, Janalee P. (2009). Herpetology (3 ed.). Academic Press. p. 526. ISBN 0-12-374346-X.
Vidal, Nicolas; Branch, William R.; Pauwels, Olivier S.G.; Hedges, S. Blair; Broadley, Donald G.; Wink, Michael; Cruad, Corinne; Joger, Ulrich; Nagy, Zoltan Tamas. (2008). "Dissecting the major African snake radiation: a molecular phylogeny of the Lamprophiidae Fitzinger (Serpentes, Caenophidia)". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 1945: 51–66. ISSN 1175-5334.

Nagy ZT, Glaw F, Vences M (2010). "Systematics of the snake genera Stenophis and Lycodryas from Madagascar and the Comoros". Zoologica Scripta. 39: 426–435. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00435.x.

Further reading

Boulenger GA. 1896. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the Colubridæ (Opisthoglyphæ and Proteroglyphæ) ... London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers). xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I-XXV. (Stenophis, new genus, pp. 39–40 + Plate IV).


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