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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohors: Clupeocephala
Cohors: Euteleosteomorpha
Subcohors: Neoteleostei
Infracohors: Eurypterygia
Sectio: Ctenosquamata
Subsectio: Acanthomorphata
Divisio/Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Subdivisio: Percomorphaceae
Series: Eupercaria
Ordo: Perciformes
Subordo: Labroidei

Familia: Scaridae
Genus: Calotomus
Species: C. carolinus – C. japonicus – C. spinidens – C. viridescens – C. zonarchus

Calotomus Gilbert, 1890:70

Type species: Calotomus xenodon Gilbert, 1890, fixed by original designation (also monotypic)


Scaridea Jenkins, 1903


Gilbert, C.H. 1890: A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer Albatross on the Pacific coast of North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of twelve new genera and ninety-two new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 13 (797): 49–126.
Streelman, J.T., M. Alfaro, M.W. Westneat, D.R. Bellwood, & S.A. Karl 2002: Evolutionary history of the parrotfishes: biogeography, ecomorphology, and comparative diversity. Ecology, 56 (5): 961–971. PDF

Vernacular names
English: Parrotfishes

Calotomus is a parrotfish genus from the Indo-Pacific, with a single species ranging into the warmer parts of the east Pacific. Compared to most of their relatives, their colours are relatively dull. Several species in this genus are associated with sea grass beds, but most can also be seen at reefs.

The genus includes these extant species:[2]

Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes, 1840) (Carolines parrotfish)

A female Carolines parrotfish (C. carolinus) in the initial phase.
A male Carolines parrotfish (C. carolinus) in the terminal phase.

Calotomus japonicus (Valenciennes, 1840) (Japanese parrotfish)
Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Spinytooth parrotfish)
Calotomus viridescens (Rüppell, 1835) (Viridescent parrotfish)
Calotomus zonarchus (Jenkins, 1903) (Yellowbar parrotfish)

The fossil species, Calotomus preisli has been recovered from middle Miocene beds from Austria, suggesting the Paratethys Sea might have been tropical.[3]

Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Calotomus". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). Calotomus Species of 'Calotomus' in FishBase. April 2006 version.

Bellwood, David R.; Schultz, Ortwin (1991). "A Review of the Fossil Record of the Parrotfishes (Labroidei: Scaridae) with a Description of a New Calotomus Species from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of Austria" (PDF). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien. 92: 55–71.

Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). Species of Calotomus in FishBase. December 2009 version.
Bony fish in the online Sepkoski Database

Fish Images

Biology Encyclopedia

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