Fine Art

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohors: Clupeocephala
Cohors: Euteleosteomorpha
Subcohors: Neoteleostei
Infracohors: Eurypterygia
Sectio: Ctenosquamata
Subsectio: Acanthomorphata
Divisio/Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Subdivisio: Percomorphaceae
Series: Eupercaria
Ordo: Perciformes
Subordo: Percoidei
Superfamilia: Percoidea

Familia: Sciaenidae
Genus: Macrodon
Species: M. ancylodon – M. atricauda – M. mordax

Macrodon Schinz, 1822

Type species: Lonchurus ancylodon Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Ancylodon Oken, 1817
Nomalus Gistel, 1848
Sagenichthys Berg, 1895


Carvalho-Filho, A.; Santos, S.; Sampaio, I. 2010: Macrodon atricauda (Günther, 1880) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae), a valid species from the southwestern Atlantic, with comments on its conservation. Zootaxa, 2519: 48–58. Preview PDF
Santos, S., Gomes, M. d. F., Soares Ferreira, A. R., Sampaio, I. & Schneider, H.; 2012: Molecular phylogeny of the western South Atlantic Sciaenidae based on mitochondrial and nuclear data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Available online 4 October 2012, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, abstract
Schinz, H.R. 1822. Das Thierreich, eingetheilt nach dem Bau der Thiere als Grundlage ihrer Naturgeschichte und der vergleichenden Anatomie von den Herrn Ritter von Cuvier. Zweiter Band: Reptilien, Fische, Weichthiere, Ringelwürmer. J.G. Cotta'schen Buchhandlung: Stuttgart & Tübingen. i–xvi + 1–835. BHL Reference page.


Macrodon and its species (including synonyms) in Catalog of Fishes, Eschmeyer, W.N., Fricke, R. & van der Laan, R. (eds.) 2024. Catalog of Fishes electronic version.
Macrodon – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Macrodon species list in FishBase,
Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (eds.) 2024. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication,, version 10/2023.

Macrodon is a genus of marine ray-finned fishes belonging to the family Sciaenidae, the drums and croakers. These fishes are found in the eastern Pacific and western Atlantic Oceans.

Macrodon was first proposed as a genus by the Swiss physician and naturalist Heinrich Rudolf Schinz with Lonchurus ancylodon,[1] a species described in 1801 by Marcus Elieser Bloch and Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider from Surinam,[2] as its type species. Macrodon was a replacement name for Lorenz Oken's Ancylodon which was preoccupied by Ancylodon Illiger, 1811,[1] a cetacean genus.[3] This genus has been placed in the subfamily Cynoscioninae by some workers,[4] but the 5th edition of Fishes of the World does not recognise subfamilies within the Sciaenidae which it places in the order Acanthuriformes.[5]

Macrodon means “large tooth” and is an allusion to the large, backwards curving teeth in front of the upper jaw.[6]

Macrodon contains three species:[7]

Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) (King weakfish)
Macrodon atricauda (Günther, 1880) (Southern King Weakfish)
Macrodon mordax (Gilbert & Starks, 1904) (Dogteeth weakfish)


Macrodon weakfishes have elongated, compressed bodies. They have moderately large eyes and a large mouth which is diagonal and points upwards with a protruding lower jaw. There are no barbels on the chin and there are two pores, one on each side, of the snout. They have large, pointed teeth with the two in the front of the upper jaw are canine-like and recurved with barbed tips. The preoperculum is soft and has small serrations. The anal fin has a short base with two weakspines and eight or nine soft rays. The rear edge of the caudal fin has a S shape. The scales are small and the soft rayed part of the dorsal fin nd the anal fin are scaled.[8] The maximum published total length of these fishes is 45 cm (18 in) for M. ancylodon and M. atricauda while in M. mordax it is 50 cm (20 in).[7]
Distribution and habitat

Macrodon weakfishes are found off the coasts of southern Central America and South America. Two species are found in the western Atlantic from Venezuela south to northern Argentina. One species, M. mordax is found in the eastern Pacific from Panama to Ecuador. They are coastal fishes of shallow waters including lagoons and estuaries.[9][10][11]
Fisheries and conservation

Macrodon weakfishes are either deliberately targeted or caught as bycatch by commercial and artisanal fisheries and they are valued as food fish. The two Atlantic species are classified by the IUCN as Least Concern while M. mordax is Data Deficient.[11][12][13]

Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Genera in the family Macrodon". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Species in the genus Macrodon". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
Perrin, W.F. (2021). "Ancylodon Illiger, 1811". World Cetacea Database. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
Kunio Sasaki (1989). "Phylogeny of the family Sciaenidae, with notes on its Zoogeography (Teleostei, Peciformes)" (PDF). Memoirs of the Faculty of Fishes Hokkaido University. 36 (1–2): 1–137.
J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. pp. 497–502. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
Christopher Scharpf & Kenneth J. Lazara, eds. (9 March 2023). "Series Eupercaria (Incertae sedis): Families Callanthidae, Centrogenyidae, Dinopercidae, Emmelichthyidae, Malacanthidae, Monodactylidae, Moronidae, Parascorpididae, Sciaenidae and Sillagidae". The ETYFish Project Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2023). Species of Macrodon in FishBase. February 2023 version.
"Genus: Macrodon, King Weakfish Croaker, Weakfishes". Shorefishes of the Greater Caribbean online information. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2023). "Macrodon ancylodon" in FishBase. February 2023 version.
Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2023). "Macrodon mordax" in FishBase. February 2023 version.
Haimovici, M.; Ruarte, C.; Rico, R. (2021). "Macrodon atricauda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T49184328A49231787. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T49184328A49231787.en. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
Espinosa-Perez, H.; Chao, L. (2020). "Macrodon mordax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T183536A131015851. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T183536A131015851.en. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
Haimovici, M. (2021). "Macrodon ancylodon". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T162915452A82668324. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T162915452A82668324.en. Retrieved 29 May 2023.

Fish Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World