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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohors: Clupeocephala
Cohors: Euteleosteomorpha
Subcohors: Neoteleostei
Infracohors: Eurypterygia
Sectio: Ctenosquamata
Subsectio: Acanthomorphata
Divisio/Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Subdivisio: Percomorphaceae
Series: Pelagiaria
Ordo: Scombriformes

Familia: Scombridae
Subfamiliae: Gasterochismatinae - Scombrinae

Vernacular names
čeština: Makrelovití
Deutsch: Makrelen und Thunfische
English: Mackerels, tunas and bonitos
日本語: サバ科
한국어: 고등어과
lietuvių: Skumbrinės
Nederlands: Makrelen
polski: Makrelowate
svenska: Makrillfiskar
ไทย: ปลาโอ, ปลาทู, ปลาทูน่า, ปลาอินทรี
Türkçe: Uskumrugiller
中文: 鲭科

Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2006. FishBase, version (02/2006). [1]

The mackerel, tuna, and bonito family, Scombridae, includes many of the most important and familiar food fishes. The family consists of 51 species in 15 genera and two subfamilies. All species are in the subfamily Scombrinae, except the butterfly kingfish, which is the sole member of subfamily Gasterochismatinae.[1]

Scombrids have two dorsal fins and a series of finlets behind the rear dorsal fin and anal fin. The caudal fin is strongly divided and rigid, with a slender, ridged base. The first (spiny) dorsal fin and the pelvic fins are normally retracted into body grooves. Species lengths vary from the 20 cm (7.9 in) of the island mackerel to the 4.58 m (15.0 ft) recorded for the immense Atlantic bluefin tuna.

Scombrids are generally predators of the open ocean, and are found worldwide in tropical and temperate waters. They are capable of considerable speed, due to a highly streamlined body and retractable fins. Some members of the family, in particular the tunas, are notable for being partially endothermic (warm-blooded), a feature that also helps them to maintain high speed and activity. Other adaptations include a large amount of red muscle, allowing them to maintain activity over long periods. Scombrids like the yellowfin tuna can reach speeds of 22 km/h (14 mph).[2]

Jordan, Evermann and Clark (1930) divide these fishes into the four families: Cybiidae, Katsuwonidae, Scombridae, and Thunnidae,[3] but taxonomists later classified them all into a single family, the Scombridae.[4][5]

The World Wildlife Fund and the Zoological Society of London jointly issued their "Living Blue Planet Report" on 16 September 2015 which states that a dramatic fall of 74% occurred in worldwide stocks of scombridae fish between 1970 and 2010, and the global overall "population sizes of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish fell by half on average in just 40 years".[6]

The 51 extant species are in 15 genera and two subfamilies – with the subfamily Scombrinae further grouped into four tribes, as:

Family Scombridae

Subfamily Gasterochismatinae
Genus Gasterochisma
Subfamily Scombrinae
Tribe Scombrini – mackerels
Genus Rastrelliger
Genus Scomber
Tribe Scomberomorini – Spanish mackerels
Genus Acanthocybium
Genus Grammatorcynus
Genus Orcynopsis
Genus Scomberomorus
Tribe Sardini – bonitos
Genus Sarda
Genus Cybiosarda
Genus Gymnosarda
Tribe Thunnini – tunas
Genus Allothunnus
Genus Auxis
Genus Euthynnus
Genus Katsuwonus
Genus Thunnus

See also

Scombroid food poisoning


Orrell, T.M.; Collette, B.B; Johnson, G.D. (2006). "Molecular data support separate Scombroid and Xiphioid Clades" (PDF). Bulletin of Marine Science. 79 (3): 505–519. Retrieved 28 October 2012.[permanent dead link]
Svendsen, Morten B. S.; Domenici, Paolo; Marras, Stefano; Krause, Jens; Boswell, Kevin M.; Rodriguez-Pinto, Ivan; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Viblanc, Paul E.; Finger, Jean S.; Steffensen, John F. (2016-10-15). "Maximum swimming speeds of sailfish and three other large marine predatory fish species based on muscle contraction time and stride length: a myth revisited". Biology Open. 5 (10): 1415–1419. doi:10.1242/bio.019919. ISSN 2046-6390. PMC 5087677. PMID 27543056.
David Starr Jordan, Barton Warren Evermann and H. Walton Clark (1930). Report of the Commission for 1928. U.S. Commission for Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D.C.
"Gasterochisma melampus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 18 April 2006.
Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Scombridae" in FishBase. January 2006 version.

"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-26. Retrieved 2015-09-16.

Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-05-19.

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