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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohors: Clupeocephala
Cohors: Euteleosteomorpha
Subcohors: Neoteleostei
Infracohors: Eurypterygia
Sectio: Ctenosquamata
Subsectio: Acanthomorphata
Divisio/Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Ordo: Scorpaeniformes
Subordo: Scorpaenoidei
Superfamiliae: Scorpaenoidea ...
Familiae: Apistidae - Aploactinidae - Congiopodidae - Eschmeyeridae - Gnathanacanthidae - Neosebastidae - Pataecidae - Peristediidae - Perryenidae - Plectrogeniidae - Scorpaenidae - Sebastidae - Setarchidae - Synanceiidae - Tetrarogidae - Triglidae


Imamura, H. 2004: Phylogenetic relationships and new classification of the superfamily Scorpaenoidea (Actinopterygii: Perciformes). Species diversity, 9: 1–36.

Scorpaenoidei is a suborder of ray-finned fishes, part of the order Scorpaeniformes, that includes the scorpionfishes, lionfishes and velvetfishes. This suborder is at its most diverse in the Pacific and Indian Oceans but is also found in the Atlantic Ocean.

Scorpaenoidei was first named as a suborder in 1899 by the American ichthyologist Samuel Garman[2] as a suborder of the Perciformes.[1] Some authorities still treat the suborder as being part of the Perciformes[3] but the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World recognises the Scorpaeniformes as a valid order and places this suborder within it.[4] The subfamilies of the family Scorpaenidae are treated as families by some authors.[3] It has been argued by some authors that the suborder is paraphyletic and that a more correct classification is that the grouping, with some differences, be placed on the superfamily Scorpaenoidea.[5]
Families and subfamilies

The suborder Scorpaenoidei is classified into families and subfamilies in the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World as follows:[4][6]

Suborder Scorpaenoidei

Family Scorpaenidae Risso, 1827 (Scorpionfishes)
Subfamily Sebastinae Kaup, 1873 (Rockfishes)
Tribe Sebastini Kaup, 1873
Tribe Sebastolobini Matsubara, 1943
Subfamily Setarchinae Matsubara, 1943
Subfamily Neosebastinae Matsubara, 1943
Subfamily Scorpaeninae Risso, 1927 (Scorpionfishes and lionfishes)
Tribe Scorpaenini Risso, 1927
Tribe Pteroini Kaup, 1873
Subfamily Caracanthinae Gill, 1885 (Orbicular velvetfishes or coral crouchers)
Subfamily Apistinae Gill, 1859 (Wasp scorpionfishes)
Subfamily Tetraroginae J.L.B. Smith, 1949 (Sailback scorpionfishes or wasp fishes)
Subfamily Synanceiinae Swainson, 1839 (Stonefishes)
Tribe Minoini Jordan & Starks, 1904
Tribe Choridactylini Kaup, 1859
Tribe Synanceiini Swainson 1839
Subfamily Plectrogeniinae Fowler, 1938
Family Aploactinidae Jordan & Starks, 1904 (Velvetfishes)
Family Eschmeyeridae Mandrytsa, 2001 (the cofish)
Family Pataecidae Gill, 1872 (Australian prowlfishes)
Family Gnathanacanthidae Gill, 1892 (Red velvetfish)
Family Congiopodidae Gill, 1889 (Racehorses, pigfishes or horsefishes)


Scorpaenoidei is rather varied grouping of around 470 species of moderately-sized fishes which have 24 to 44 vertebrae and the ribs towards the head are either absent or rigidly attached to the spine.[7]
Distribution and habitat

Scorpaenoidei are found in all the tropical and temperate oceans of the world but most species are found in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The suborder includes benthic and pelagic species and marine and freshwater species.[4]

Scorpaenoidei contaiuns some of the most venomous fish species known, including lionfishes, stonefishes and scorpionfishes.[4]

"Suborder Scorpaenoidei Garman 1899 (perch-like fish)". Fossilworks. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
"Scorpaenidae". mindat. Hudson Institute of Mineralogy. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
Ricardo Betancur-R; Edward O. Wiley; Gloria Arratia; et al. (2017). "Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 17 (162). doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0958-3.
J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. pp. 468–475. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
Hisashi Imamura (2004). "Phylogenetic Relationships and New Classification of the Superfamily Scorpaenoidea (Actinopterygii: Perciformes)". Species Diversity. 9: 1–36.
Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
"Scorpaeniformes". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 28 October 2021.

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