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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohors: Clupeocephala
Cohors: Euteleosteomorpha
Subcohors: Neoteleostei
Infracohors: Eurypterygia
Sectio: Ctenosquamata
Subsectio: Acanthomorphata
Divisio/Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Subdivisio: Percomorphaceae
Series: Eupercaria
Ordo: Perciformes
Subordo: Percoidei
Superfamilia: Percoidea

Familia: Serranidae
Subfamiliae: AnthiadinaeEpinephelinaeGrammistinaeLiopropomatinaeSerraninae
Genera incertae subfamiliae: CaesioscorpisHemilutjanusPalaeoperca


Serranidae Richardson, 1844


Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2006. FishBase, version (02/2006). [1]

Schoelinck, C., Hinsinger, D. D., Dettaï, A., Cruaud, C. & Justine, J.-L.: A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning. PLoS ONE, 9, e98198. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098198

Vernacular names
čeština: Kanicovití
Deutsch: Sägebarsche
English: Serranidae
eesti: Kiviahvenlased
italiano: Serranidi
日本語: ハタ科
Nederlands: Zeebaarzen
polski: Strzępielowate
ไทย: ปลากะรัง, ปลาเก๋า
中文: 鮨科

The Serranidae are a large family of fishes belonging to the order Perciformes. The family contains about 450 species in 65 genera, including the sea basses and the groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae). Although many species are small, in some cases less than 10 cm (3.9 in), the giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is one of the largest bony fishes in the world, growing to 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) in length and 400 kg (880 lb) in weight.[2] Representatives of this group live in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide.


Many serranid species are brightly colored, and many of the larger species are caught commercially for food. They are usually found over reefs, in tropical to subtropical waters along the coasts. Serranids are generally robust in form, with large mouths and small spines on the gill coverings. They typically have several rows of sharp teeth, usually with a pair of particularly large, canine-like teeth projecting from the lower jaw.[3]

All serranids are carnivorous. Although some species, especially in the Anthiadinae subfamily, only feed on zooplankton, the majority feed on fish and crustaceans. They are typically ambush predators, hiding in cover on the reef and darting out to grab passing prey. Their bright colours are most likely a form of disruptive camouflage, similar to the stripes of a tiger.[3]

Many species are protogynous hermaphrodites, meaning they start out as females and change sex to male later in life.[3] They produce large quantities of eggs and their larvae are planktonic, generally at the mercy of ocean currents until they are ready to settle into adult populations.

Like other fish, serranids harbour parasites, including nematodes, cestodes, digeneans,[4] monogeneans, isopods, and copepods. A study conducted in New Caledonia has shown that coral reef-associated serranids harbour about 10 species of parasites per fish species.[5]
A typical member of Anthiadinae, the sea goldie, is small, colorful, planktivorous and social.
Like many other large species in the Epinephelinae subfamily, the Nassau grouper is threatened by overfishing.
As indicated by its name, the skin of the six-striped soapfish produces a toxic mucus.

In recent times[when?], this family has been proposed to be split. The two hypothetical families emerging from the remains of the possibly-obsolete taxon are the families Epinephilidae and Anthiadidae. This taxonomic separation is recognized by some authorities[who?], including the IUCN.[6] Recent[when?] molecular classifications challenge the validity of the genera Cromileptes (sometimes spelled Chromileptes) and Anyperodon. Each of these two genera has a single species, which were included in the same clade as species of Epinephelus in a study based on five different genes.[7]

The subfamilies and genera are as follows:[8][9]

Subfamily Anthiinae Poey, 1861[1]
Acanthistius Gill, 1862
Anatolanthias Anderson, Parin & Randall, 1990
Anthias Bloch, 1792
Baldwinella Anderson & Heemstra, 2012[10]
Caesioperca Castelnau, 1872
Caprodon Temminck & Schlegel, 1843
Choranthias Anderson & Heemstra, 2012[10]
Dactylanthias Bleeker, 1871
Epinephelides Ogilby, 1899
Giganthias Katayama, 1954
Hemanthias Steindachner, 1875
Holanthias Günther 1868
Hypoplectrodes Gill, 1862
Lepidoperca Regan, 1914
Luzonichthys Herre, 1936
Meganthias Randall & Heemstra, 2006
Nemanthias J.L.B. Smith, 1954
Odontanthias Bleeker, 1873
Othos Castelnau, 1875
Plectranthias Bleeker, 1873
Pronotogrammus Gill, 1863
Pseudanthias Bleeker, 1871
Rabaulichthys Allen, 1984
Sacura D.S. Jordan & Richardson, 1910
Selenanthias Tanaka, 1918
Serranocirrhitus Watanabe, 1949
Tosana H.M. Smith & Pope, 1906
Tosanoides Kamohara, 1953
Trachypoma Günther, 1859
Subfamily Epinephelinae Bleeker, 1874 (groupers)[1]
Tribe Niphonini D.S. Jordan, 1923
Niphon Cuvier, 1828
Tribe Epinephilini Bleeker, 1874
Aethaloperca Fowler, 1904
Alphestes Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Anyperodon Günther, 1859
Cephalopholis Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Chromileptes Swainson, 1839
Dermatolepis Gill, 1861
Epinephelus Bloch, 1793
Gonioplectrus Gill, 1862
Gracila Randall, 1964
Hyporthodus Gill, 1861
Mycteroperca Gill, 1862
Paranthias Guichenot, 1868
Plectropomus Pken, 1817
Saloptia J.L.B. Smith, 1964
Triso Randall, Johnson & Lowe, 1989
Variola Swainson, 1839
Tribe Diploprionini Bleeker, 1874
Aulacocephalus Temminck & Schlegel, 1843
Belonoperca Fowler & B.A. Bean, 1930
Diploprion Cuvier, 1828
Tribe Liopropomini Poey, 1867
Bathyanthias Günther, 1880
Liopropoma Gill, 1861
Rainfordia McCulloch, 1923
Tribe Grammistini Bleeker, 1857
Aporops Schultz, 1943
Grammistes Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Grammistops Schultz 1953
Jeboehlkia Robins, 1967
Pogonoperca Günther 1859
Pseudogramma Bleeker, 1875
Rypticus Cuvier, 1829
Suttonia J.L.B. Smith, 1953
Subfamily Serraninae Swainson, 1839[1]
Bullisichthys Rivas, 1971
Centropristis Cuvier, 1829
Chelidoperca Boulenger, 1895
Cratinus Steindachner, 1878
Diplectrum Holbrook, 1855
Hypoplectrus Gill, 1861
Paralabrax Girard, 1856
Parasphyraenops T.H. Bean, 1912
Schultzea Woods, 1958
Serraniculus Ginsburg, 1952
Serranus Cuvier, 1816
incertae sedis
Caesioscorpis Whitley, 1945
Hemilutjanus Bleeker, 1876
†Palaeoperca Micklich, 1978 (Eocene, Germany)


Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3882.1.1. PMID 25543675.
Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2016). "Epinephelus lanceolatus" in FishBase. October 2016 version.
Randall, John E. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 195–199. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
Cribb, T. H.; Bray, R. A.; Wright, T.; Pichelin, S. (2002). "The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephelinae): knowledge, nature and evolution". Parasitology. 124 (7): S23–S42. doi:10.1017/s0031182002001671. PMID 12396214. S2CID 12287737.
Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G. A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, F.; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I. D. (2010). "An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish". Folia Parasitologica. 57 (4): 237–262. doi:10.14411/fp.2010.032. PMID 21344838.
"IUCN red list taxonomies".
Schoelinck, C.; Hinsinger, D. D.; Dettaï, A.; Cruaud, C.; Justine, J.-L. (2014). "A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e98198. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...998198S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098198. PMC 4122351. PMID 25093850.
Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Genera in the family Serranidae". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. pp. 446–448. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.

Anderson, W.D. Jr.; Heemstra, P.C. (2012). "Review of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Anthiine Fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes: Serranidae), with Descriptions of Two New Genera". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 102 (2): 1–173.

Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2016). "Serranidae" in FishBase. October 2016 version.
Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Retrieved 2011-05-19.

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