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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Spilanthinae
Genus: Acmella
Species: A. alba – A. alpestris – A. bellidioides – A. brachyglossa – A. calva – A. caulirhiza – A. ciliata – A. darwinii – A. decumbens – A. filipes – A. glaberrima – A. grandiflora – A. grisea – A. iodiscaea – A. leptophylla – A. leucantha – A. lundellii – A. majaroensis – A. mutissi – A. oleracea – A. oppositifolia – A. paniculata – A. papposa – A. pilosa – A. poliolepidica – A. psilocarpa – A. pusilla – A. radicans – A. ramosa – A. repens – A. serratifolia – A. sodiroi – A. tenella – A. trilobata – A. uliginosa

Acmella Rich. in C.H. Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 472 (1807).

Type species: Anthemis repens Walter; lectotype designated by Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8: 19 (1985) = Acmella repens (Walter) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 473 (1807).


Spilanthes sect. Acmella (Rich.) DC., Prodr. 5: 620 (1836).
Pyrethraria Pers. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 420 (1841).

Primary references

Persoon, C.H. 1806–1807. Synopsis plantarum, seu enchiridium botanicum, complectens enumerationem systematicam specierum hucusque cognitarum. Pars secunda. 657 pp. Apud Bibliopolas Treuttel et Würtz, Parisiis Lutetiorum [Paris]; Apud J. G. Cottam, Tubingae [Tübingen]. BHL Biblioteca Digital Reference page.

Additional references

Jansen, R.K. 1985. The systematics of Acmella (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Systematic Botany Monographs 8: [2] + 115 pp. Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2021. Acmella. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Sept. 1. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Acmella. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 12 2018. 2018. Acmella. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 12.
Acmella Rich. ex Pers. – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
IUCN link: Acmella threatened species
Acmella – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Acmella in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Oct 5. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Acmella (Plantae). Accessed: 5 Oct 2021.

Vernacular names
English: Spotflower

Acmella is a genus of plants in the aster family, Asteraceae,[4][5] described as a genus in 1807.[6][3] It is native to the Americas and has been introduced to Asia, Africa, the Pacific islands, and Australia.[4]

One familiar species is Acmella oleracea, which has been widely cultivated for centuries. It is used for food and medicine, and as an insecticide and an ornamental plant. Its common use as an herbal remedy for toothache and oral infections earned it the nickname toothache plant.[5]

These are annual or perennial herbs with branching stems usually reaching 10 to 20 centimeters in length, growing prostrate or erect. The oppositely arranged leaves are smooth-edged or toothed, and usually have rough or soft hairs. The flower heads are usually solitary at the tips of the stem branches, or occasionally borne in inflorescences. There are several to many disc florets with bell-shaped throats and 4 or 5 triangular lobes, usually yellow, or sometimes orange. Some species lack ray florets, but some have 5 to 20 or more, usually in yellow or orange, but occasionally white or purple. The disc florets are bisexual, but any ray florets are pistillate.[4]

Accepted Species[7]

Acmella alba (L'Hér.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella alpestris (Griseb.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella bellidioides (Sm.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella brachyglossa Cass.
Acmella calva (DC.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella caulirhiza Delile
Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass.
Acmella darwinii (D.M.Porter) R.K.Jansen
Acmella decumbens (Sm.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella filipes (Greenm.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella glaberrima (Hassl.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella grandiflora (Turcz.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella grisea (Chodat) R.K.Jansen
Acmella iodiscaea (A.H.Moore) R.K.Jansen
Acmella leptophylla (DC.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella leucantha (Kunth) R.K.Jansen
Acmella lundellii R.K.Jansen
Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella papposa (Hemsl.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella pilosa R.K.Jansen
Acmella poliolepidica (A.H.Moore) R.K.Jansen
Acmella psilocarpa R.K.Jansen
Acmella pusilla (Hook. & Arn.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella radicans (Jacq.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella ramosa (Hemsl.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella repens (Walter) Rich. ex Pers.
Acmella serratifolia R.K.Jansen
Acmella sodiroi (Hieron.) R.K.Jansen
Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass.


Panero, J. L.; et al. (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships of Subtribe Ecliptinae (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) based on chloroplast DNA restriction site data". American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America. 86 (3): 413–27. doi:10.2307/2656762. JSTOR 2656762. PMID 10077503.
lectotype designated by Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8: 19 (1985)
Tropicos, Acmella Pers.
"Acmella Richard". Flora of North America.
Chung, K.; et al. (2008). "Notes on Acmella (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) in Taiwan" (PDF). Bot Stud. 49: 73–82. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-11-03.
Persoon, Christiaan Hendrik. 1807. Synopsis Plantarum 2: 472-473 in Latin
"The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved June 5, 2014.

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