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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales
Familia: Alseuosmiaceae - Argophyllaceae - Asteraceae - Calyceraceae - Campanulaceae - Goodeniaceae - Menyanthaceae - Pentaphragmataceae - Phellinaceae - Rousseaceae - Stylidiaceae


Asterales Lindl.

Alseuosmiales Doweld, Prosyllabus Tracheoph.: liv. 2001.
Menyanthales J.Presl, Nowočeská Bibl. [Wšobecný Rostl.] 7: 1082. 1846.
Pentaphragmatales Doweld, Prosyllabus Tracheoph.: liv. 2001.
Phellinales Doweld, Prosyllabus Tracheoph.: liv. 2001.
Rousseales Doweld, Prosyllabus Tracheoph.: liii. 2001.


Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Doweld, A.B. 2001. Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen systematis plantarum vascularium (Tracheophyta) [Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Опыт системы сосудистых растений]. LXXX + 110 pp. Moscow: Geos. ISBN 5-89118-283-1. DJVU Reference page.
Tank D. C., & Donoghue M. J. (2010) Phylogeny and phylogenetic nomenclature of the Campanulidae based on an expanded sample of genes and taxa. Systematic Botany 35: 425–441.

Vernacular names
العربية: نجميات
azərbaycanca: Astraçiçəklilər
беларуская: Астракветныя
català: Asteral
čeština: hvězdnicotvaré
dansk: Kurvblomstordenen
Deutsch: Asternartige
English: Asterales
Esperanto: Asteraloj
eesti: Astrilaadsed
فارسی: میناسانان
עברית: פעמוניתאיים
hrvatski: Zvjezdanolike
magyar: Fészkesvirágzatúak
íslenska: Körfublómabálkur
日本語: キク目
한국어: 국화목
kurdî: Koma kulîlkselikan
lietuvių: Astriečiai
latviešu: asteru rinda
македонски: Ѕвездовидни
മലയാളം: ആസ്റ്റെരേൽസ്
norsk nynorsk: Korgplanteordenen
polski: Astrowce
پنجابی: تاریورگے
پښتو: تريز ډوله بوټي
русский: Астроцветные
slovenčina: astrotvaré
svenska: Asterordningen
ไทย: อันดับทานตะวัน
українська: Айстроцвіті
اردو: طبقہ تاراپھول
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Cúc
中文: 菊目

Asterales /æstəˈreɪliːz/[2] is an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants that includes the large family Asteraceae (or Compositae) known for composite flowers made of florets, and ten families related to the Asteraceae.[3] While asterids in general are characterized by fused petals, composite flowers consisting of many florets create the false appearance of separate petals (as found in the rosids).

The order is cosmopolitan (plants found throughout most of the world including desert and frigid zones), and includes mostly herbaceous species, although a small number of trees (such as the Lobelia deckenii, the giant lobelia, and Dendrosenecio, giant groundsels) and shrubs are also present.

Asterales are organisms that seem to have evolved from one common ancestor. Asterales share characteristics on morphological and biochemical levels. Synapomorphies (a character that is shared by two or more groups through evolutionary development) include the presence in the plants of oligosaccharide inulin, a nutrient storage molecule used instead of starch; and unique stamen morphology. The stamens are usually found around the style, either aggregated densely or fused into a tube, probably an adaptation in association with the plunger (brush; or secondary) pollination that is common among the families of the order, wherein pollen is collected and stored on the length of the pistil.


The name and order Asterales is botanically venerable, dating back to at least 1926 in the Hutchinson system of plant taxonomy when it contained only five families, of which only two are retained in the APG III classification. Under the Cronquist system of taxonomic classification of flowering plants, Asteraceae was the only family in the group, but newer systems (such as APG II and APG III) have expanded it to 11. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Asterales were in the superorder Asteriflorae (also called Asteranae).

The order Asterales currently includes 11 families, the largest of which are the Asteraceae, with about 25,000 species, and the Campanulaceae ("bellflowers"), with about 2,000 species. The remaining families count together for less than 1500 species. The two large families are cosmopolitan, with many of their species found in the Northern Hemisphere, and the smaller families are usually confined to Australia and the adjacent areas, or sometimes South America.

Only the Asteraceae have composite flower heads; the other families do not, but share other characteristics such as storage of inulin that define the 11 families as more closely related to each other than to other plant families or orders such as the rosids.

The phylogenetic tree according to APG III for the Campanulid clade is as below.[4]
Campanulid clade (similar to Euasterids II in APG II)

Campanulid clade  (similar to Euasterids II in APG II)









The core Asterales are Stylidiaceae (six genera), APA clade (Alseuosmiaceae, Phellinaceae and Argophyllaceae, together 7 genera), MGCA clade (Menyanthaceae, Goodeniaceae, Calyceraceae, in total twenty genera), and Asteraceae (about sixteen hundred genera). Other Asterales are Rousseaceae (four genera), Campanulaceae (eighty four genera) and Pentaphragmataceae (one genus).

All Asterales families are represented in the Southern Hemisphere; however, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae are cosmopolitan and Menyanthaceae nearly so.[5]

Although most extant species of Asteraceae are herbaceous, the examination of the basal members in the family suggests that the common ancestor of the family was an arborescent plant, a tree or shrub, perhaps adapted to dry conditions, radiating from South America. Less can be said about the Asterales themselves with certainty, although since several families in Asterales contain trees, the ancestral member is most likely to have been a tree or shrub.

Because all clades are represented in the southern hemisphere but many not in the northern hemisphere, it is natural to conjecture that there is a common southern origin to them. Asterales are angiosperms, flowering plants that appeared about 140 million years ago. The Asterales order probably originated in the Cretaceous (145 – 66 Mya) on the supercontinent Gondwana which broke up from 184 – 80 Mya, forming the area that is now Australia, South America, Africa, India and Antarctica.

Asterales contain about 14% of eudicot diversity. From an analysis of relationships and diversities within the Asterales and with their superorders, estimates of the age of the beginning of the Asterales have been made, which range from 116 Mya to 82Mya.[4] However few fossils have been found, of the Menyanthaceae-Asteraceae clade in the Oligocene, about 29 Mya.

Fossil evidence of the Asterales is rare and belongs to rather recent epochs, so the precise estimation of the order's age is quite difficult. An Oligocene (34 – 23 Mya) pollen is known for Asteraceae and Goodeniaceae, and seeds from Oligocene and Miocene (23 – 5.3 Mya) are known for Menyanthaceae and Campanulaceae respectively.[6]
Economic importance

The Asterales, by dint of being a super-set of the family Asteraceae, include some species grown for food, including the sunflower (Helianthus annuus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and chicory (Cichorium).[7] Many are also used as spices and traditional medicines.

Asterales are common plants and have many known uses. For example, pyrethrum (derived from Old World members of the genus Chrysanthemum) is a natural insecticide with minimal environmental impact.[8] Wormwood, derived from a genus that includes the sagebrush, is used as a source of flavoring for absinthe, a bitter classical liquor of European origin.[9]

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Stearn, William Thomas (2004). Botanical Latin. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-627-9. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Kubitzki, K. (1990). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants: Flowering Plants, Eudicots: Asterales. Springer. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
"Angiosperm Phylogeny Website". Retrieved 12 June 2012.
Lundberg, Johannes (2009). Funk, Vicki A. (ed.). Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae (PDF). International Association for Plant Taxonomy. pp. 157–169. ISBN 978-3-9501754-3-1. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Bremer, K.; Gustafsson, M. H. G. (1997). "East Gondwana ancestry of the sunflower alliance of families". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (17): 9188–9190. Bibcode:1997PNAS...94.9188B. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.17.9188. PMC 23106. PMID 9256457.
"A Brief Overview of the Compositae, Lettuce and Sunflower". 28 October 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Wolff, Anita, ed. (2008). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. p. 403. ISBN 978-1-59339-492-9. Retrieved 14 April 2020.

Wondrich, David (5 August 2008). "The Five Best Bottles of Absinthe". Esquire.

General references
W. S. Judd, C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue (2002). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. pp. 476–486 (Asterales). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0.
Lindley, John (1833). Nixus plantarum (in Spanish). London: Apud Ridgway et Filios. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Smissen, Rob D. (2003). "Asterales (Sunflower)". eLS. American Cancer Society. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0003736. ISBN 0470016175.
Berry, Paul E. (21 June 2013). "Asterales | plant order". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
"Definition of ASTERALES". Merriam Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 14 April 2020.

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