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Taxonavigation: Asterales
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Campanulaceae
Subfamilia: Campanuloideae
Genus: Adenophora
Species: A. amurica – A. brevidiscifera – A. capillaris – A. changaica – A. coelestis – A. contracta – A. cordifolia – A. dawuensis – A. delavayi – A. divaricata – A. elata – A. fusifolia – A. gmelinii – A. golubinzevaeana – A. grandiflora – A. hatsushimae – A. himalayana – A. hubeiensis – A. jacutica – A. jasionifolia – A. khasiana – A. lamarckii – A. liliifolia – A. liliifolioides – A. linearifolia – A. lobophylla – A. longipedicellata – A. maximowicziana – A. micrantha – A. morrisonensis – A. nikoensis – A. ningxianica – A. palustris – A. pereskiifolia – A. petiolata – A. pinifolia – A. polyantha – A. potaninii – A. probatovae – A. remotidens – A. remotiflora – A. rupestris – A. rupincola – A. sajanensis – A. sinensis – A. stenanthina – A. stenophylla – A. stricta – A. subjenisseensis – A. sublata – A. takedae – A. tashiroi – A. taurica – A. trachelioides – A. tricuspidata – A. triphylla – A. uryuensis – A. wilsonii – A. wulingshanica – A. xifengensis

Nothospecies: A. × izuensis

Adenophora Fisch., Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 6: 165. (1823)

Type species: Adenophora triphylla (Thunb.) A.DC. (1830)


Floerkea Spreng., Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 523 (1818), nom. illeg.


Fischer, F.E.L.v. 1823. Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 6: 165.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Adenophora in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 July 19. Reference page. 2014. Adenophora. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 July 15.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Adenophora. Published online. Accessed: July 15 2014.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Çadırçiçəyi
беларуская: Званок
English: Ladybells
suomi: Kauluskellot
日本語: ツリガネニンジン属
polski: Dzwonecznik
русский: Бубенчик
中文: 沙参属

Adenophora is a genus of flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae, the bellflowers. Plants of this genus are known commonly as ladybells.[2] Most are native to eastern Asia, with a few in Europe. Many are endemic to either China or Siberia.[1][3]


These plants are perennial herbs, often with thick, fleshy roots. The stem usually grows erect from a caudex. There are usually several basal leaves borne on long petioles. The leaves on the stem are alternately arranged in most species. Flowers are solitary or borne in cymes. The corolla of the flower is bell-shaped, funnel-shaped, or tubular, with five lobes.[3] The corollas of most species are blue.[2] There is a characteristic nectar disc at the base of the stamens.[3]

There are about 62 species in the genus.[3]

Species include:[1][3][4]
Adenophora nikoensis
Adenophora triphylla var. japonica

Adenophora amurica – Heilongjiang
Adenophora brevidiscifera – Sichuan
Adenophora capillaris – Chongqing, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan
Adenophora changaica – Mongolia
Adenophora coelestis – Sichuan, Yunnan
Adenophora contracta – Liaoning, Inner Mongolia
Adenophora cordifolia – Henan
Adenophora divaricata – spreading-branch ladybell[5] – Honshu, Shikoku, Korea, Amur, Primorye, Khabarovsk, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi
Adenophora elata – Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi
Adenophora erecta[6] – erect ladybell[5] – Ulleungdo Island
Adenophora fusifolia – South Korea
Adenophora gmelinii – narrow-leaf ladybell[5] – Buryatiya, Chita, Amur, Primorye, Mongolia, Korea, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi
Adenophora golubinzevaeana – Krasnoyarsk
Adenophora grandiflora – big-flower ladybell[5] – Korea
Adenophora hatsushimae – Kyushu
Adenophora himalayana – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Tibet, Nepal, northern India, Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan
Adenophora hubeiensis – Hubei
Adenophora × izuensis – Honshu
Adenophora jacutica – Yakutiya
Adenophora jasionifolia – Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan
Adenophora kayasanensis – Gayasan ladybell[5] – Korea
Adenophora khasiana (syn. A. bulleyana) – Assam, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan
Adenophora koreana – Korean ladybell[5] – Korea
Adenophora lamarckii – Lamark's ladybell[5] – Irkutsk, Altai, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Korea
Adenophora liliifolia – lily-leaf ladybell[5] central and eastern Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Italy, etc.) east to Xinjiang
Adenophora liliifolioides – Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Tibet
Adenophora lobophylla – Sichuan
Adenophora longipedicellata – Chongqing, Guizhou, W Hubei, Sichuan
Adenophora maximowicziana – Shikoku
Adenophora micrantha – Inner Mongolia
Adenophora morrisonensis – Taiwan
Adenophora nikoensis – Honshu
Adenophora ningxianica[7] – Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia
Adenophora palustris – marsh ladybell[5] – Jilin, Korea, Honshu
Adenophora pereskiifolia – Manchurian ladybell[5] – Mongolia, Japan, Korea, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Amur, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Khabarovsk, Chita, Buryatiya
Adenophora petiolata – Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang
Adenophora pinifolia – Liaoning
Adenophora polyantha – many-flower ladybell[5] – Korea, Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi
Adenophora potaninii – Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan
Adenophora probatovae – Primorye
Adenophora racemosa – racemose ladybell[5] – Korea
Adenophora remotidens – Incheon ladybell[5] – Korea
Adenophora remotiflora – scattered ladybell[5] – Primorye, Japan, Korea, Manchuria
Adenophora rupestris – Irkutsk
Adenophora rupincola – Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan
Adenophora sajanensis – Krasnoyarsk
Adenophora sinensis – Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi
Adenophora stenanthina – Mongolia, Gansu, Hebei, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Altai, Amur, Irkutsk, Chita, Buryatiya, Tuva
Adenophora stenophylla – Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria
Adenophora stricta – upright ladybell[5] – Korea, Japan, Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang
Adenophora sublata – Primorye, Khabarovsk
Adenophora takedae – Honshu
Adenophora taquetii – Jejudo ladybell[5] – Korea
Adenophora tashiroi – Fukue Island, Jeju-do Island
Adenophora taurica – Crimea
Adenophora trachelioides – Anhui, Hebei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Zhejiang
Adenophora tricuspidata – Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, much of Asiatic Russia
Adenophora triphylla – giant bellflower – Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Laos, Vietnam, Russian Far East, Siberia
Adenophora uryuensis – Hokkaido
Adenophora wilsonii – Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan
Adenophora wulingshanica – Beijing
Adenophora xifengensis – Gansu


Many Adenophora species have been used in traditional Chinese medicine.[8]

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families[permanent dead link]
Perry, L. Perennial Plant Feature: Ladybells. Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont Extension
沙参属 sha shen shu Adenophora. Flora of China.
GRIN Species Records of Adenophora. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 364. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
Lee, S., et al. (1997). A new species of Adenophora (Campanulaceae) from Korea. Journal of Plant Research 110(1) 77-80.
Song, G. and H. De-yuan. (1999). A new species of Chinese Adenophora (Campanulaceae). Novon 9(1) 46.
YouLi, H. (2010). Resource and utilization of medicinal plant of the genus Adenophora in Qinling Mountains. Medicinal Plant 1(12) 3-6.

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