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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Amaranthaceae s.l.
Cladus: Chenopodiaceae s.str.
Subfamilia: Salsoloideae
Tribus: Salsoleae
Genus: Anabasis
Species: A. al-rawii – A. aphylla – A. aretioides – A. articulata – A. brachiata – A. brevifolia – A. calcarea – A. cretacea – A. ebracteolata – A. ehrenbergii – A. elatior – A. eriopoda – A. eugeniae – A. ferganica – A. firouzii – A. gypsicola – A. haussknechtii – A. jaxartica – A. lachnantha – A. macroptera – A. oropediorum – A. pelliotii – A. prostrata – A. salsa – A. setifera – A. syriaca – A. truncata – A. turgaica – A. turkestanica

Names in synonymy: A. abolinii – A. affinis – A. africana – A. alopecuroides – A. ammodendron – A. annua – A. arbuscula – A. balchaschensis – A. bamianica – A. brachylepis – A. bracteolata – A. caespitosa – A. cinerea – A. clavata – A. conjugata – A. crassa – A. cretica – A. depressa – A. ebracteata – A. echinopoda – A. echinus – A. florida – A. foliata – A. foliosa – A. glomerata – A. gontscharowii – A. heterophylla – A. heteroptera – A. hispanica – A. hispidula – A. iliensis – A. inconspicua – A. intermedia – A. iranica – A. juncea – A. kareliniana – A. korovinii – A. lutea – A. micradena – A. monandra – A. mucronata – A. multiflora – A. naryensis – A. oppositiflora – A. oppositifolia – A. pauciflora – A. pavlovii – A. phyllophora – A. pulcherrima – A. ramosa – A. ramosissima – A. saxaul – A. sieversii – A. spinosissima – A. subulifolia – A. tamariscifolia – A. tatarica – A. tianschanica – A. tournefortii – A. transchelii – A. triandra – A. undulata – A. wakhanica – A. zoharyi

for Esfandiaria: E. calcarea

for Brachylepis: B. elatior – B. eriopoda – B. ferganica – B. hispidula – B. humilis – B. intermedia – B. jaxartica – B. ramosissima – B. salsa – B. truncata

for Fredolia: F. aretioides

Anabasis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 223. (1753)

Lectotype (designated by A.S. Hitchcock in Hitchcock & Green 1929: 137): Anabasis aphylla L.

Brachylepis C.A.Mey., Icon. Pl. [Ledebour] 1: 12. (1829) / Fl. Altaic. [Ledebour] 1: 370. (1829)
Type: Brachylepis salsa Ledeb.
Esfandiaria Charif & Aellen, in Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel 63: 262. (1952) ("Esfandiari" at IPNI)
Type: Esfandiaria calcarea Charif & Aellen
Fredolia (Coss. & Durieu ex Bunge) Ulbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 [Engler & Prantl] 16c: 451, 578. (1934)
Type: Fredolia aretioides (Moq. & Coss. ex Bunge) Ulbr.
Basionym: Anabasis sect. Fredolia Coss. & Durieu ex Bunge, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 9: 301. (1862)

Primary references

Aellen, P. 1952. Ergebnisse einer botanisch-zoologischen Sammelreise durch den Iran 1948/1949. Botanische Ergebnisse II. Chenopodiaceae: Agriophyllum, Esfandiaria, Eurotia. Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 63: 253–272. Reference page. [See page 262]
Bunge, A.v. 1862. Anabasearum revisio. Mémoires de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint Petersbourg. Ser. 7. 4(11): 1–104. BHL Reference page. [See page 35.]
Ledebour, C.F.v. 1829–1830. Icones plantarum novarum vel imperfecte cognitarum floram Rossicam, imprimis Altaicam, illustrantes Vol. 1–2. Rigae: apud I. Deubner. 200 pl. BHL Reference page. [See page 12.]
Ledebour, C.F.v., with Meyer, C.A.v. & Bunge, A.v. 1829. Flora Altaica. Tomus 1. Classis I.–V. 440 pp. G. Reimeri, Berolini. BHL Reference page. [See page 370.]
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 223. Reference page.
Ulbrich, O.E. 1934. Chenopodiaceae, in: Engler, A. & Prantl, K.A.E. (eds.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed.2. 16c, Engelmann, Leipzig: 379–584. Reference page. [pp. 451, 578.]

Additional references

Akhani, H., Edwards, G. & Roalson, E.H. 2007. Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear and Chloroplast Data Sets and a Revised Classification. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168(6): 931–956. DOI: 10.1086/518263 ResearchGate Reference page.
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page. [See page 137.]
Hedge, I.C. 1997. Anabasis. In:
Hedge, I.C., Akhani, H., Freitag, H., Kothe-Heinrich, G., Podlech, D., Rilke, S. & Uotila, P. 1997. Chenopodiaceae. In: Rechinger, K.H. (ed.): Flora Iranica Vol. 172. 371 pp., 212 tab., Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt Graz. Reference page. : 305–315.
Zhu, G., Mosyakin, S.L. & Clemants, S.E. 2004. Chenopodiaceae Ventenat. Anabasis. Flora of China Vol. 5: 397. Online.


Hassler, M. 2019. Anabasis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 05. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Anabasis. Published online. Accessed: December 20 2015.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Anabasis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 05. Reference page. 2015. Anabasis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 20 December 2015.

Anabasis is a genus of plants in the subfamily Salsoloideae of the family Amaranthaceae. It is distributed in southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia.


The species of genus Anabasis are annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs. Their stems are fleshy and articulated, mostly glabrous with the exception of hairy tufts at the nodes, rarely with papillae-like trichomes or woolly. The opposite leaves may be reduced to small scales or normally developed.[1]

The inflorescences are elongated or condensed spikes. The bisexual flowers are sitting solitary or in groups of up to 4 in the axils of upper leaves (bracts), with 2 paired bracteoles. Flowers consist of 5 subequal membranous perianth segments, that are free nearly from base; 3-5 stamens without appendages; and an ovary with 2-3 thick and short stigmas.[1]

In fruit, prominent membranous wings develop on the back of the perianth segments, usually 2-3 of them larger than the others. Rarely, the perianth remains unwinged. The fruit may be baccate or dry, either vertical and compressed or nearly spherically shaped. The lenticular seed is vertically orientated, filled by the spiral embryo without endosperm.[1]

The genus Anabasis is distributed from Southwest Europe and North Africa, the shores of the Red Sea (Ethiopia) to Southwest Asia and Central Asia. The center of diversity lies in Asia. Anabasis species grow in steppes and semideserts.[1]

The genus name Anabasis was published in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum.[2] Type species is Anabasis aphylla L.

The genus Anabasis belongs to the tribe Salsoleae s.s., in the subfamily Salsoloideae of the family Amaranthaceae (which includes the family Chenopodiaceae). According to Akhani et al. (2007),[3] the genus comprises 29 species:
Anabasis aretioides

Anabasis aphylla L.
Anabasis aretioides Moq. & Coss. (Syn. Fredolia aretioides (Moq. & Coss. ex Bunge) Ulbr.)
Anabasis articulata (Forssk.) Moq.
Anabasis brevifolia C. A. Mey.
Anabasis brachiata Fisch. & C. A. Mey.
Anabasis calcarea (Charif & Aellen) Bokhari & Wendelbo
Anabasis cretacea Pall.
Anabasis ebracteolata Korov. ex Botsch.
Anabasis ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex Boiss.
Anabasis elatior (C. A. Mey.) Schrenk
Anabasis eriopoda (Schrenk) Benth. ex Volkens
Anabasis eugeniae Iljin
Anabasis ferganica Drob.
Anabasis gypsicola Iljin
Anabasis haussknechtii Bunge ex Boiss.
Anabasis iranica Iljin
Anabasis jaxartica (Bunge) Benth. ex Volkens
Anabasis lachnantha Aellen & Rech. f.
Anabasis macroptera Moq.
Anabasis oropediorum Maire
Anabasis paucifolia M. Pop. ex Iljin
Anabasis pelliotii Danguy
Anabasis prostrata Pomel.
Anabasis salsa (C. A. Mey.) Benth. ex Volkens
Anabasis syriaca Iljin
Anabasis tianschanica Botsch.
Anabasis truncata (Schrenk) Bunge
Anabasis turgaica Iljin & Krasch.
Anabasis turkestanica Iljin & Korov.


The Nicotine-related alkaloid Anabasine was named for the toxic Central Asiatic species Anabasis aphylla - from which it was first isolated by Orechoff and Menschikoff in the year 1931. It was widely used as an insecticide in the former Soviet Union until 1970.[4] Anabasine is also the active principle responsible for deaths from poisoning caused by the leaves of Nicotiana glauca, the Tree Tobacco.[5]

I.C.Hedge (1997): Anabasis. - In: Karl Heinz Rechinger et al. (Hrsg.): Flora Iranica, Vol. 172 - Chenopodiaceae. Graz, Akad. Druck, p. 305-306.
Linnaeus, Carl (1753): Species Plantarum, p.223, scanned at BHL
Hossein Akhani, Gerald Edwards & Eric H. Roalson: Diversification Of The Old World Salsoleae S.L. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Of Nuclear And Chloroplast Data Sets And A Revised Classification, in: International Journal of Plant Sciences, 168 (6), 2007, p. 931–956
Ujváry, István, Pest Control Agents from Natural Products - Chapter 3 of Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology ( Third Edition ), ed. Robert Krieger, pub. Academic Press 2010.
Mizrachi, N.; Levy, S.; Goren, Z. Q. (2000). "Fatal Poisoning from Nicotiana glauca Leaves: Identification of Anabasine by Gas-Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 45 (3): 736–41. PMID 10855991.

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