Fine Art

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Amaranthaceae s.l.
Cladus: Chenopodiaceae s.str.
Subfamilia: Salsoloideae

Tribus: Caroxyleae – Salsoleae
Overview of genera

Accepted genera: AnabasisArthrophytumCaroxylonClimacopteraCornulacaCyathobasisGirgensohniaHalarchonHalimocnemisHalocharisHalogetonHalothamnusHaloxylonHammadaHoraninoviaKaviriaLagenanthaNanophytonNitrosalsolaNoaeaNuculariaOfaistonOreosalsolaPetrosimoniaPiptopteraPhysandraPyankoviaRhaphidophytonSalsolaSodaSympegmaTraganumTraganopsisTurania –- Xylosalsola

Genera probably placed here: Iljinia – Sevada

Names in synonymy: Aellenia – Agathophora – Brachylepis – Caspia – Choriptera – Darniella – Eremochion – Esfandiaria – Fadenia – Fredolia – Gamanthus – Gyroptera – Halanthium – Halotis – Hypocylix – Kali – Micropeplis – Muratina – Neocaspia – Physogeton – Seidlitzia

Salsoloideae Ulbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2 [Engler & Prantl] 16c. (1934)

Type: Salsola L.


in familia Atriplicaceae (as 'Atriplexia'):

Salsoloideae Raf., Fl. Tellur: 45. (1837) (as 'Salsolides'),

Primary references

Ulbrich, O.E. 1934. Chenopodiaceae, in: Engler, A. & Prantl, K.A.E. (eds.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed.2. 16c, Engelmann, Leipzig: 379–584. Reference page.
Rafinesque-Schmaltz, C.S. 1837 ["1836"]. Flora Telluriana. Pars Tertia. 100 pp. Philadelphia, H. Probasco. BHL Reference page. : 45

Additional references

Akhani, H., Edwards, G. & Roalson, E.H. 2007. Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear and Chloroplast Data Sets and a Revised Classification. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168(6): 931–956. DOI: 10.1086/518263 ResearchGate Reference page.
Theodorova (Feodorova), T.A. 2015. New nomenclatural combinations in Nitrosalsola (Chenopodiaceae). Ukrayins'kyi Botanicnyi Zhurnal 72(5): 442–445. DOI: 10.15407/ukrbotj72.05.442 PDF Reference page.
Akhani, H., Khoshravesh, R. & Malekmohammadi, M. 2016. Taxonomic novelties from Irano-Turanian region and NE Iran: Oreosalsola, a new segregate from Salsola s.l., two new species in Anabasis and Salvia, and two new combinations in Caroxylon and Seseli. Phytotaxa 249(1): 159–180. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.249.1.7 Reference page.


Salsoloideae at GRIN
Salsoloideae at NCBI

The Salsoloideae are a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae, formerly in family Chenopodiaceae.


These are herbs, subshrubs, shrubs and some trees. Stems and leaves are often succulent. The ovary contains a spiral embryo. In most genera, scarious wings develop at the outside of the fruiting perianth, allowing for dispersal by the wind (anemochory). In tribe Caroxyleae, the stamens have vesiculose anther appendages, discolor with anthers, that probably play a role for insect pollination. In tribe Salsoleae the anther appendages are absent or small and inconspicuous.

The area with most species (center of diversity) are the deserts and semideserts of Central-Asia and the Middle East. Distribution of the subfamily extends to the Mediterranean, to Middle-Europe, north and south Africa, and Australia, some species have also been introduced to America. Many species grow in dry habitats (xerophytes) or tolerate salty soils (halophytes), some are ruderals.
Photosynthesis pathway

Salsoloideae are C4 plants (with a few exceptions in tribe Salsoleae). Tribe Caroxyleae is exclusively of the NAD-malic enzyme C4 subtype. Most Salsoleae also use the NADP-malic enzyme.[1]
Climacoptera turcomanica, in fruit
Cornulaca monacantha
Halothamnus subaphyllus, in fruit
Saxaul, Haloxylon ammodendron
Hammada griffithii, in fruit
Kali tragus

The type genus of subfamily Salsoloideae is Salsola L. According to recent research, the former classification did not reflect the phylogenetic relationship, so that the subfamily had to be reclassified; it is now split in two tribes, Caroxyleae and Salsoleae (in the strict sense).[2][3] The tribe Camphorosmeae is now treated in its own subfamily, Camphorosmoideae.[4]

Caroxyleae Akhani & E. H. Roalson (as "Caroxyloneae")[2]

Caroxylon Thunb., with 43 species
Climacoptera Botsch., with 41 species
Halarchon Bunge, with one species
Halarchon vesiculosum (Moq.) Bunge
Halimocnemis C. A. Mey., with 27 species (Syn. Gamanthus Bunge, Halanthium C. Koch, Halotis Bunge)
Halocharis Moq., with 7 species
Kaviria Akhani & E. H. Roalson, with 10 species
Nanophyton Less., with ca. 10 species
Ofaiston Raf., with one species
Ofaiston monandrum (Pall.) Moq.
Petrosimonia Bunge, with 12 species
Piptoptera Bunge, with one species
Piptoptera turkestana Bunge
Physandra Botsch., with one species
Physandra halimocnemis (Botsch.) Botsch.
Pyankovia Akhani & E. H. Roalson, with one species
Pyankovia brachiata (Pall.) Akhani & E. H. Roalson


Anabasis L. ( incl. Fredolia (Coss. & Durieu ex Bunge) Ulbr.), with 29 species
Arthrophytum Schrenk, with 9 species
Cornulaca Delile, with 5 species
Cyathobasis Aellen, with one species:
Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen
Girgensohnia Bunge ex Fenzl, with 4 species
Halogeton C. A. Mey, with 5 species. (Syn. Agathophora (Fenzl) Bunge, Micropeplis Bunge)
Halothamnus Jaub. & Spach, with 21 species
Haloxylon Bunge, with 2 species
Haloxylon ammodendron
Haloxylon persicum
Hammada Iljin, with 12 species
Horaninowia Fisch. & C. A. Mey, with 6 species
Kali Mill., with 13 species:
Kali turgidum Moench (Syn. Salsola kali subsp. kali)
Kali tragus (L.) Scop. (Syn. Salsola kali subsp. tragus)
Lagenantha Chiov. (Syn.: Gyroptera Botsch.) Classification not sure. With 1-3 species.
Noaea Moq., with 3 species
Nucularia Batt., Classification not sure. With one species:
Nucularia perrini Batt.
Rhaphidophyton Iljin, with one species
Rhaphidophyton regelii (Bunge) Iljin
Salsola L., with 25 species. (Syn. Darneilla Maire & Weiller, Fadenia Aellen & Townsend, Neocaspia Tzvelev, Hypocylix Wol.)
Seidlitzia Bunge ex Boiss.
Sympegma Bunge
Traganum Del., with 2 species
Traganopsis Maire et Wilczek, with one species
Traganopsis glomerata Maire & Wilczek
Turania Akhani & E. H. Roalson, with 4 species
Xylosalsola Tzvelev, with 4 species
Classification within Salsoleae unclear:
Salsola divaricata Masson ex Link.
Salsola arbusculiformis Drob.
Salsola laricifolia Turcz. ex Litw.
Salsola abrotanoides Bunge
Salsola botschantzevii Kurbanov
Salsola flexuosa Botsch.
Salsola junatovii Botsch.
Salsola lipschitzii Botsch.
Salsola maracandica Iljin
Salsola masenderanica Botsch.
Salsola montana Litw.
Salsola oreophila Botsch.
Salsola tianschanica Botsch.
Salsola genistoides Juss. ex Poir.
Salsola pachyphylla Botsch.
Salsola webbii Moq.

Classification in subfamily not sure

Iljinia Korovin, with one species:
Iljinia regelii (Bunge) Korovin


Pyankov, V.; Ziegler, H.; Kuz'min, A.; Edwards, G. (2001). "Origin and evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae) based on anatomical and biochemical types in leaves and cotyledons". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 230 (1–2): 43–74. doi:10.1007/s006060170004. ISSN 0378-2697. S2CID 25370346.
Akhani, H.; Edwards, G.; Roalson, E.H. (2007). "Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast data sets and a revised classification". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 168 (6): 931–956. doi:10.1086/518263. ISSN 1058-5893. S2CID 86789297.
Schüssler, Christina; Freitag, Helmut; Koteyeva, Nuria; Schmidt, Denise; Edwards, Gerald; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Kadereit, Gudrun (1 January 2017). "Molecular phylogeny and forms of photosynthesis in tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae)". Journal of Experimental Botany. 68 (2): 207–223.
Kadereit, G.; Freitag, H. (2011). "Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): Implications for biogeography, evolution of C4-photosynthesis and taxonomy". Taxon. 60 (1): 51–78. doi:10.1002/tax.601006.

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World