Fine Art

Anaphalis margaritacea, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Gnaphalieae
Genus: Anaphalis
Species: Anaphalis margaritacea
Varietates: A. m. var. angustifolia – A. m. var. cinnamomea – A. m. var. margaritacea – A. m. var. yedoensis

Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f.

Anaphalis cinnamomea var. angustior (Miq.) Nakai
Anaphalis margaritacea subsp. angustior (Miq.) Kitam.
Anaphalis margaritacea var. angustior (Miq.) Nakai
Anaphalis margaritacea var. intercedens H.Hara
Anaphalis margaritacea var. occidentalis Greene
Anaphalis margaritacea var. revoluta Suksd.
Anaphalis margaritacea var. subalpina (A.Gray) A.Gray
Anaphalis occidentalis (Greene) Heller
Anaphalis sierrae A. A. Heller
Anaphalis timmua (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz.
Anaphalis timmua D. Don
Antennaria cinnamomea var. angustior Miq.
Antennaria margaritacea (L.) R. Br. ex DC.
Antennaria timmua D. Don
Chamaezelum margaritaceum (L.) Link
Gnaphalium americanum Greene
Gnaphalium boreale Salisb.
Gnaphalium hypophaeum Spreng. ex DC.
Gnaphalium margaritaceum L.
Gnaphalium margaritaceum var. timua Kuntze
Gnaphalium timmua Buch.-Ham. ex Spreng.
Helichrysum margaritaceum (L.) Moench
Margaritaria ramosa Opiz

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
USA (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming), Mexico (Baja California Norte, Sonora)
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir (Poonch, Kashmir), India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Darjeeling, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya, West Bengal), Pakistan (Swat, Hazara, Murree), Nepal, Bhutan, Chumbi, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Russian Far East, China (S-Gansu, N-Guangxi, W-Hubei, S-Hunan, E-Qinghai, S-Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan), Tibet, Taiwan, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Benth. & Hook.f., Genera Plantarum Eorumque Characteres Naturales Secundum Numerum, Figuram, Situm, & Proportionem Omnium Fructificationis Partium. Lugduni Batavorum 2: 303 (1873)
USDA, NRCS (2006). The PLANTS Database, 6 March 2006 ( Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.


International Plant Names Index. 2018. Anaphalis margaritacea. Published online. Accessed: January 08 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Anaphalis margaritacea in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2018 January 08. 2018. Anaphalis margaritacea. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 08 January 2018.
Hassler, M. 2018. Anaphalis margaritacea. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 January 08. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Anaphalis margaritacea in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
English: Western Pearly Everlasting
suomi: Helminukkajäkkärä
日本語: ヤマハハコ

Anaphalis margaritacea, commonly known as the western pearly everlasting[5] or pearly everlasting, is an Asian and North American species of flowering perennial plant in the family Asteraceae.


A. margaritacea grows erect up to about 90 centimetres (3 feet) tall,[6] with narrow, alternate leaves up to 12.5 cm (5 inches). The undersides of the leaves are densely covered in tiny hairs.[7] The stems are dry and brittle. The whitish to yellowish flower grows to about 6 millimetres (1⁄4 in) across[7] as part of a corymb inflorescence, the most conspicuous part of which is the numerous pearly white bracts that surround the disc florets.[8] It blooms between June and September.[7]

The plant is dioecious, meaning the pollen-producing (male) and seed-producing (female) flowers are borne on separate plants.[7]


Varieties and subspecies[4]

Anaphalis margaritacea var. cinnamomea (DC.) Herder ex Maxim.
Anaphalis margaritacea subsp. japonica (Maxim.) Kitam.
Anaphalis margaritacea var. margaritacea
Anaphalis margaritacea var. yedoensis (Franch. & Sav.) Ohwi


The species' common name 'pearly everlasting'[9] comes from the pearly white bracts.[10]
Distribution and habitat

It is widespread across most of Canada and the United States, as well as northwestern Mexico.[8][11] Asian populations are found in China, the Russian Far East, Japan, Korea, northern Indochina, and the Himalayas.[12] The species is reportedly naturalized in Europe though not native there. It prefers dry, sunny climates, but is hardy to temperatures well below freezing.[7][additional citation(s) needed]

The leaves are host to the caterpillars of the American painted lady butterfly (Vanessa virginiensis)[13] and the painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui).[14]

The leaves and young plants are edible when cooked.[15]

NatureServe (2006). "Anaphalis margaritacea". NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life, Version 6.1. Arlington, Virginia. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
"Anaphalis margaritacea". International Plant Names Index (IPNI). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Harvard University Herbaria & Libraries; Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2008-06-08.
"Anaphalis margaritacea". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-06-08.
"Anaphalis margaritacea". The Global Compositae Checklist (GCC) – via The Plant List.
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Anaphalis margaritacea". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
Hogan, C. Michael (2010). "Anaphalis margaritacea". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2022-07-03.
Spellenberg, Richard (2001) [1979]. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers: Western Region (rev ed.). Knopf. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-375-40233-3.
Nesom, Guy L. (2006). "Anaphalis margaritacea". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 19. New York and Oxford – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
Fagan, Damian (2019). Wildflowers of Oregon: A Field Guide to Over 400 Wildflowers, Trees, and Shrubs of the Coast, Cascades, and High Desert. Guilford, CT: FalconGuides. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4930-3633-2. OCLC 1073035766.
"Anaphalis margaritacea". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
Zhu, Shixin; Bayer, Randall J. "Anaphalis margaritacea". Flora of China. Vol. 20–21 – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
"Vanessa virginiensis". Butterflies and Moths of North America.
The Xerces Society (2016), Gardening for Butterflies: How You Can Attract and Protect Beautiful, Beneficial Insects, Timber Press.
"Pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea)".

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