Fine Art

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Campanulaceae
Subfamilia: Campanuloideae
Genus: Asyneuma
Species: A. amplexicaule – A. anthericoides – A. argutum – A. babadaghense – A. campanuloides – A. canescens – A. chinense – A. compactum – A. davisianum – A. ekimianum – A. filipes – A. fulgens – A. giganteum – A. ilgazense – A. isauricum – A. japonicum – A. junceum – A. limonifolium – A. linifolium – A. lobelioides – A. lycium – A. macrodon – A. michauxioides – A. munzurdaghense – A. pakistanicum – A. persicum – A. pulchellum – A. pulvinatum – A. rigidum – A. thomsonii – A. trichostegium – A. virgatum

Asyneuma Griseb. & Schenk, Arch. Naturgesch. 18(1): 335. 1852.

Type species: Asyneuma canescens Waldst. & Kit.) Griseb. & Schenk, Arch. Naturgesch. 18(1): 335. 1852


Tracanthelium Kit. ex Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 47. 1853.
Podanthum Boiss., Fl. Orient. 3: 945. 1875.
Trochocodon P.Candargy, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 44: 148. 1897.
Asyneumopsis Contandr., Quézel & Pamukç., Ann. Univ. Provence, Sci. 46: 58. 1972 [1971 publ. 1972].

Native distribution areas:

Middle Europe
Czechoslovakia, Hungary.
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe
Northern Africa
Russian Far East
Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye.
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan.
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Western Asia
Afghanistan, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Sinai, Turkey.
China South-Central, Manchuria, China Southeast, Tibet.
Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea.
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya.
Myanmar, Thailand.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Grisebach, A.H.R. & Schenk, J.A. 1852. Iter hungaricum a. 1852 susceptum. Beiträge zur Systematik der ungarischen Flora. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 18(1): 291–362. BHL PDF Reference page.

Additional references

Hong, D. & Lammers, T.G. 2011. Asyneuma. Pp. 553 in Wu, Zh.Y. , Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.), Flora of China. Volume 19: Cucurbitaceae through Valerianaceae, with Annonaceae and Berberidaceae. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, ISBN 978-1-935641-04-9. efloras Reference page.
Tan, K. & Yıldız, B. 1988. New Asyneuma (Campanulaceae) Taxa from Turkey. Willdenowia 18(1): 67-80. JSTOR Paywall Reference page.
Parolly, G. 2000. Notes on two neglected Turkish Asyneuma taxa (Campanulaceae). Willdenowia 30(1):67-75. DOI: 10.3372/wi.30.30105 Open access Reference page.
Yıldırımlı, Ş. 2012. Nine new species from Kaz dağları, Munzur dağları, Bolkar dağları and Karçal dağları, Turkey. Ot Sistematik Botanik Dergisi 19(1): 1–34. Reference page.
Hong, D.Y. 2015. Three New Species of Campanulaceae from the Pan-Himalaya. Phytotaxa 227(2): 196–200. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.227.2.10 Paywall Reference page.

Links 2014. Asyneuma. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 15 July 2014.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Asyneuma in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 February 23. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Asyneuma. Published online. Accessed: 23 February 2021.

Vernacular names
English: Harebell
русский: Свободноцветка

Asyneuma is a genus of flowering plants in the bellflower family, Campanulaceae. They are native to North Africa and Eurasia.[2] Many are endemic to Turkey.[3][4] Plants of the genus may be known commonly as harebells, but this name can also apply to the entire family.[5] There are up to about 33 species.[2][6]

Characters used to identify Asyneuma species include a generally wheel-shaped (rotate) corolla with the petals fused at the bases and spreading outward into very narrow lobes, lacking or rudimentary appendages on the calyx, a stigma with 2 to 4 lobes, and an oblong or roughly spherical fruit capsule that breaks open via pores on the sides.[7] These characters are not always helpful in distinguishing Asyneuma from the closely related genus Campanula, because authors disagree on which character is more important: the extent to which the flower petals are joined versus the position of the pores on the fruit capsule. Molecular data has been required to determine the best genus in which to place certain species.[8]

Species include:

Asyneuma amplexicaule (Willd.) Hand.-Mazz. - Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Caucasus
Asyneuma anthericoides (Janka) Bornm. - Balkans
Asyneuma argutum (Regel) Bornm. - Central Asia
Asyneuma babadaghense Yildiz & Kit Tan - Turkey
Asyneuma campanuloides (M.Bieb. ex Sims) Bornm. - Caucasus
Asyneuma canescens (Waldst. & Kit.) Griseb. & Schenk - Balkans, Ukraine
Asyneuma chinense D.Y.Hong - Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan
Asyneuma compactum Damboldt - Turkey
Asyneuma davisianum Yildiz & Kit Tan - Turkey
Asyneuma ekimianum Yildiz & Kit Tan - Turkey
Asyneuma filipes (Nábelek) Damboldt - Turkey, Iraq
Asyneuma fulgens (Wall.) Briq. - Indian Subcontinent, Tibet, Myanmar
Asyneuma giganteum (Boiss.) Bornm. - Greek Islands
Asyneuma ilgazense Yildiz & Kit Tan - Turkey
Asyneuma isauricum Contandr., Quézel & Pamukç - Turkey
Asyneuma japonicum (Miq.) Briq. - Japan, Korea, Manchuria, Russian Far East
Asyneuma junceum Parolly - Turkey
Asyneuma limonifolium (L.) Janch. - Balkans, Italy, Turkey
Asyneuma linifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Bornm. - Turkey
Asyneuma lobelioides (Willd.) Hand.-Mazz. - Turkey, Caucasus
Asyneuma lycium (Boiss.) Bornm. - Turkey
Asyneuma macrodon (Boiss. & Hausskn.) Bornm. - Iran
Asyneuma michauxioides (Boiss.) Damboldt - Turkey
Asyneuma persicum (A.DC.) Bornm. - Turkey, Iraq, Iran
Asyneuma pulchellum (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Bornm.- Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Caucasus
Asyneuma pulvinatum P.H.Davis - Turkey
Asyneuma rigidum (Willd.) Grossh. - Algeria, Caucasus, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Sinai, Syria
Asyneuma thomsonii (C.B.Clarke) Bornm. - western Himalayas
Asyneuma trichocalycinum (Boiss.) Bornm. - Turkey
Asyneuma trichostegium (Boiss.) Bornm. - Turkey
Asyneuma virgatum (Labill.) Bornm. - Greek Islands, Turkey, Iran, Caucasus, Syria


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Asyneuma. Flora of China.
Alçitepe, E. (2008). Morphological, anatomical and palynological studies on Asyneuma michauxioides (Campanulaceae). Biologia 63(3), 338-42.
Tan, K. and B. Yildiz. (1988). New Asyneuma (Campanulaceae) taxa from Turkey. Willdenowia 18(1), 67-80.
Asyneuma. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Asyneuma. The Plant List.
Parolly, G. (2000). Notes on two neglected Turkish Asyneuma taxa (Campanulaceae).[permanent dead link] Willdenowia 30(1), 67-75.
Stefanovic, S. and D. Lakusic. (2009). Molecular reappraisal confirms that the Campanula trichocalycina-pichleri complex belongs to Asyneuma (Campanulaceae).[permanent dead link] Bot Serb 33, 21-31.

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World