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Bituminaria bituminosa (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Faboideae
Tribus: Psoraleeae
Genus: Bituminaria
Species: Bituminaria bituminosa

Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H.Stirt., 1981

Aspalthium bituminosum (L.) Fourr.
Aspalthium herbaceum Medik.
Bipontinia bituminosa (L.) Alef.
Bituminaria bituminosa var. albomarginata P.Méndez, Fern.Galván & A.Santos
Bituminaria bituminosa var. brachycarpa (Feldmann) Danin
Bituminaria bituminosa var. crassiuscula P.Méndez, Fern.Galván & A.Santos
Dorychnium angustifolium Moench
Dorychnium rotundifolium Moench
Lotodes bituminosum (L.) Kuntze
Psoralea angustifolia Willd.
Psoralea bituminosa L.
Psoralea bituminosa var. brachycarpa Feldmann
Psoralea bituminosa subsp. pontica (A.P.Khokhr.) Zernov
Psoralea bituminosa var. prostrata Zohary
Psoralea elata Salisb.
Psoralea foetida C.Presl
Psoralea frutescens Poir.
Psoralea pontica A.P.Khokhr.
Psoralea taurica Ledeb. ex Nyman
Rhynchodium bituminosum C.Presl
Rhynchodium foetidum (C.Presl) C.Presl
Trifolium bituminosum Garsault

Native distribution areas:
Primary references

Stirton, C.H. 1981. Bothalia. A Record of Contributions from the National Herbarium, Union of South Africa. Pretoria 13: 318.

Additional references

Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Bituminaria bituminosa in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 May 26. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Bituminaria bituminosa. Published online. Accessed: May 26 2021. 2021. Bituminaria bituminosa. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 26 May 2021.
Hassler, M. 2021. Bituminaria bituminosa. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2021 May 26. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Bituminaria bituminosa. Accessed: 26 May 2021.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Bituminaria bituminosa in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
español: trébol hediondo
suomi: Hartsiapila
français: Psoralée bitumineuse

Bituminaria bituminosa, the Arabian pea or pitch trefoil,[1] is a perennial Mediterranean herb species in the genus Bituminaria.

The pterocarpans bitucarpin A and B can be isolated from the aerial parts of B. bituminosa.[2]

It has several potential uses: (i) forage crop, (ii) Phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated or degraded soils, (iii) Synthesis of furanocoumarins (psoralen, angelicin, xanthotoxin and bergapten), compounds of broad pharmaceutical interest.

It is easily recognizable by the characteristic smell of bitumen from its leaves. This strong tar-like characteristic aroma appears to be the result of a combination of several substances such as phenolics, sulphurated compounds, sesquiterpenes and probably short-chain hydrocarbon. Total polyphenols content was < 2% and the condensed tannins was <0.8% in a dry weight basis.

See also

List of native plants of Palestine (A-B)
Orto Botanico di Montemarcello near Ameglia, Province of La Spezia, Liguria, Italy


BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
Pterocarpans from Bituminaria morisiana and Bituminaria bituminosa. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Jeffrey B. Harborne. Luisa Pistelli, Cecilia Noccioli, Giovanni Appendino, Federica Bianchi, Olov Sterner and Mauro Ballero, Phytochemistry, Volume 64, Issue 2, September 2003, Pages 595-598, doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00190-0

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