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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Ixoroideae
Tribus: Octotropideae
Genus: Canephora
Species: C. ambrensis – C. angustifolia – C. goudotii – C. gyrobracteata – C. humblotii – C. madagascariensis – C. maroana

Canephora Juss., Gen. Pl. 208. (1789)

Type species: Canephora madagascariensis J.F.Gmel., Syst. Nat. ed. 13[bis]: 372. (1791)


Jussieu, A.L. de 1789. Genera Plantarum 208.
Dawson, S.E. 2016. Characteristics of the Madagascan genus Canephora (Rubiaceae: Octotropideae), and the description of two new species. Kew Bulletin 71(3): 45. DOI: 10.1007/s12225-016-9654-5 Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Canephora in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 July 10. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Canephora. Published online. Accessed: July 10 2019. 2019. Canephora. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 July 10.

Canephora is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae, indigenous to Madagascar.[1][2]


The name Canephora, "basket bearer", refers to both the flattened peduncle topped by a "hollowed apex bearing flowers" and to the ritual office for unmarried young women in ancient Greece, as bearer of a sacred basket full of offerings during processions at festivals.[3]

Canephora is unique in Rubiaceae in having peduncles transformed into flattened, green axes called phylloclades.[4]

Canephora madagascariensis has bright white, campanulate flowers and apparently edible, red fruits, locally known as "hazongalala".[5]

Currently, five species are recognized, but several new species await description.[4]

Canephora angustifolia Wernham
Canephora goudotii Wernham
Canephora humblotii Drake
Canephora madagascariensis J.F.Gmel.
Canephora maroana A.DC.


Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de (August 8, 1789). "Antonii Laurentii de Jussieu Genera plantarum :secundum ordines naturales disposita, juxta methodum in Horto regio parisiensi exaratam, anno M.DCC.LXXIV". apud viduam Herissant et Theophilum Barrois.
"Canephora in the World Checklist of Rubiaceae". Retrieved June 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
Roccos JL (1995). "The kanephoros and her festival mantle in Greek art". American Journal of Archaeology. 99 (4): 641–666. doi:10.2307/506187. JSTOR 506187.
De Block P, Vrijdaghs A (2013). "Development of reproductive organs in Canephora madagascariensis (Octotropideae - Rubiaceae)". Plant Ecology and Evolution. 146 (3): 310–327. doi:10.5091/plecevo.2013.844.
Seligson D (1972). "On collecting herbs in Madagascar". Arnoldia. 32: 23–29.

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