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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Ixoroideae
Tribus: AirospermeaeAlberteaeAleisanthieaeAugusteaeBertiereaeCoffeeaeCondamineeaeCordiereaeCrossopterygeaeGardenieaeGreeneeaeHenriquezieaeIxoreaeJackieaeMussaendeaeOctotropidaePavetteaePosoquerieaeRetiniphylleaeSabiceeaeScyphiphoreaeSherbournieaeSipaneeaeSteenisieaeTrailliaedoxeaeVanguerieae


Ixoroideae Raf., 1820.

Typus: Ixora L.

Vide Dialypetalanthoideae Reveal (2012), but not in common usage.

Rafinesque-Schmaltz, C.S. 1820. Annales Generales des Sciences Physiques Bruxelles 6: 84.
Andreasen, K. & Bremer, B. 2000. Combined phylogenetic analysis in the Rubiaceae‐Ixoroideae: morphology, nuclear and chloroplast DNA data. American Journal of Botany 87(11): 1731-1748. DOI: 10.2307/2656750 Reference page.
Kainulainen, K., Razafimandimbison, S.G. & Bremer, B. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships and new tribal delimitations in subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 173(3): 387-406. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12038 PDF Reference page.
Mouly, A., Razafimandimbison, S.G., Florence, J., Jérémie, J. & Bremer, B. 2009. Paraphyly of Ixora and New Tribal Delimitation of Ixoreae (Rubiaceae): Inference from Combined Chloroplast (rps16, rbcL, and trnT-F) Sequence Data. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96(1): 146–160. JSTOR BHL Reference page.
Mouly, A., Kainulainen, K., Persson, C., Davis, A.P., Wong, K.M., Razafimandimbison, S.G. & Bremer, B. 2014. Phylogenetic structure and clade circumscriptions in the Gardenieae complex (Rubiaceae). Taxon 63(4): 801-818. DOI: 10.12705/634.4 PDF Reference page.
Reveal, J.L. 2012. Newly required infrafamilial names mandated by changes in the Code of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, and Plants. Phytoneuron 2012-33: 1–32. PDF Reference page.
Rodo, C.B., Delprete, P.G. & Motley, T.J., 2009. Phylogenetic placement of the tribe Retiniphylleae among the subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96(1): 61-67. JSTOR Reference page.
Rydin, C., Wikström, N. & Bremer, B. 2017. Conflicting results from mitochondrial genomic data challenge current views of Rubiaceae phylogeny. American Journal of Botany 104(10): 1522-1532. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1700255 PDF Reference page.

Ixoroideae is a subfamily of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae and contains about 4000 species in 27 tribes.


Airospermeae Kainul. & B.Bremer
Alberteae Hook.f.
Aleisanthieae Mouly, J.Florence & B.Bremer
Augusteae Kainul. & B.Bremer
Bertiereae Bridson
Coffeeae DC.
Condamineeae Hook.f.
Cordiereae A.Rich. ex DC. emend. Mouly
Cremasporeae Bremek. ex S.P.Darwin
Crossopterygeae F.White ex Bridson
Gardenieae A.Rich. ex DC.
Greeneeae Mouly, J.Florence & B.Bremer
Henriquezieae Benth. & Hook.f.
Ixoreae Benth. & Hook.f.
Jackieae Korth.
Mussaendeae Hook.f.
Octotropideae Bedd.
Pavetteae A.Rich. ex Dumort.
Posoquerieae Delprete
Retiniphylleae Hook.f.
Sabiceeae Bremek.
Scyphiphoreae Kainul. & B.Bremer
Sherbournieae Mouly & B.Bremer
Sipaneeae Bremek.
Steenisieae Kainul. & B.Bremer
Trailliaedoxeae Kainul. & B.Bremer
Vanguerieae A.Rich. ex Dumort.


Ixoroideae is a subfamily of the family Rubiaceae. Based on both morphological and molecular characters, Rubiaceae has been divided into three subfamilies - Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae, and Rubioideae. Ixoroideae and Cinchoinoideae are more closely related.[1] Members of Ixoroideae are morphologically diverse so no shared derived characters have been established for its classification. Introduction of molecular analyses to systematics dramatically improved tribal classification within the subfamily.[2] Present tribal classification within this subfamily is mainly supported through molecular analysis of chloroplast DNA.
Cultivation and use

Ixoroideae consists of 27 tribes that include several economically valuable genera. Well-known genera within the subfamily include Ixora and Gardenia, both popular ornamentals, but economic value is centered on the genus Coffea, cultivated for coffee production. Three species are generally used for cultivation - Coffea arabica, Coffea robusta, and Coffea liberica [3]

Bremer, B., & Eriksson, T. (2009). Time tree of Rubiaceae: phylogeny and dating the family, subfamilies, and tribes. International journal of plant sciences,170(6), 766-793
Andreasen, K, & Bremer, B. (2000). Combined phylogenetic analysis in the Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae: morphology, nuclear and chloroplast DNA data. American Journal of Botany, 87,1731–1748.
Davis, A. P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D. M., & Stoffelen, P. (2006). An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 152(4), 465-512.

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