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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Orobanchaceae
Tribus: Pedicularideae
Genus: Castilleja
Species: C. affinis – C. albobarbata – C. alpicola – C. altorum – C. ambigua – C. angustata – C. angustifolia – C. annua – C. applegatei – C. aquariensis – C. arachnoidea – C. arctica – C. arvensis – C. aspera – C. attenuata – C. aurea – C. auriculata – C. austromontana – C. belding – C. bella – C. brevistyla – C. bryantii – C. campestris – C. caudata – C. cerroana – C. cervina – C. chambersii – C. chiapensis – C. chlorosceptron – C. chlorotica – C. christiiC. chromosa – C. chrymactis – C. chrysantha – C. cinereaC. coccinea – C. collegiorum – C. conzattii – C. covilleana – C. crista-galli – C. cryptantha – C. ctenodonta – C. cusickii – C. dendridion – C. densiflora – C. dissitiflora – C. durangensis – C. ecuadorensis – C. elegans – C. elmeri – C. exilis – C. exserta – C. falcata – C. filiflora – C. fissifolia – C. flava – C. foliolosa – C. fraterna – C. fruticosa – C. fulva – C. galehintoniae – C. genevievana – C. glandulifera – C. gleasoni – C. gonzaleziae – C. gracilis – C. grisea – C. guadalupensis – C. haitiensis – C. haydenii – C. hidalgensis – C. hirsuta – C. hispida – C. holmgrenii – C. hyetophila – C. hyparctica – C. hyperborea – C. indivisa – C. integra – C. integrifolia – C. irasuensis – C. jiquilpana – C. kaibabensis – C. kerryana – C. kraliana – C. kuschei – C. lacera – C. laciniata – C. lanata – C. lapponica – C. lasiorhyncha – C. latifolia – C. lebgueana – C. lemmonii – C. lentii – C. levisecta – C. linariifolia – C. lineariloba – C. lineata – C. linifolia – C. longibracteata – C. longiflora – C. ludoviciana – C. lutescens – C. macrostigma – C. madrigalii – C. mcvaughii – C. mendocinensis – C. meridensis – C. mexicana – C. miniata – C. minor – C. mollis – C. moranensis – C. muelleri – C. nana – C. nervata – C. nitricola – C. nivea – C. nivibractea – C. nubigena – C. occidentalis – C. olgae – C. ophiocephala – C. oresbia – C. organorum – C. ornata – C. ortegae – C. pallescens – C. pallida – C. palmeri – C. papilionacea – C. parviflora – C. parvula – C. patriotica – C. pavlovii – C. peckiana – C. pectinata – C. pediaca – C. perelegans – C. peruviana – C. pilosa – C. plagiotoma – C. porphyrosceptron – C. praeterita – C. pringlei – C. profunda – C. pruinosa – C. pseudohyperborea – C. pseudopallescens – C. pterocaulon – C. puberula – C. pulchella – C. pumila – C. purpurea – C. purpusii – C. quiexobrensis – C. quirosii – C. racemosa – C. raupii – C. revealii – C. rhexiifolia – C. rhizomata – C. rigida – C. roei – C. rubicundula – C. rubida – C. rubra – C. rupicola – C. salsuginosa – C. saltensis – C. scabrida – C. schaffneri – C. schizotricha – C. schrenkii – C. scorzonerifolia – C. septentrionalis – C. sessiliflora – C. socorrensis – C. sphaerostigma – C. spiranthoides – C. stenophylla – C. steyermarkii – C. stipifolia – C. subalpina – C. subinclusa – C. suksdorfii – C. sulphurea – C. talamancensis – C. tancitaroana – C. tapeinoclada – C. tayloriorum – C. tenella – C. tenuiflora – C. tenuifolia – C. tenuis – C. thompsonii – C. toluccensis – C. trujillensis – C. uliginosa – C. unalaschcensis – C. vadosa – C. variocolorata – C. venusta – C. victoriae – C. virgata – C. virgayoides – C. viscidula – C. wallowensis – C. wightii – C. wootonii – C. xanthotricha – C. yukonis – C. zempoaltepetlensis

Nothospecies: C. × gleasonii


Castilleja Mutis ex L.f. Suppl. Pl. 47–48. (1781)
Type species: Castilleja fissifolia L. f. Suppl. Pl. 293. (1781)


Mutis, J.C.B. 1781. Supplementum Plantarum 47–48.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Castilleja in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jan. 28. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Castilleja. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jan. 28. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Castilleja. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 28 2014. 2014. Castilleja. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Feb. 28.

Vernacular names
English: Indian Paintbrush
suomi: Kastiljat

Castilleja, commonly known as Indian paintbrush or prairie-fire, is a genus of about 200 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants native to the west of the Americas from Alaska south to the Andes, northern Asia, and one species as far east as the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. These plants are classified in the family Orobanchaceae (following major rearrangements of the order Lamiales starting around 2001; sources which do not follow these reclassifications may place them in the Scrophulariaceae). They are hemiparasitic on the roots of grasses and forbs. The generic name honors Spanish botanist Domingo Castillejo.[2]


Castilleja species are eaten by the larvae of some lepidopteran species, including Schinia cupes (which has been recorded on C. exserta) and Schinia pulchripennis (which feeds exclusively on C. exserta), and checkerspot butterflies, such as Euphydryas species.

The flowers of Indian paintbrush are edible, and were consumed in moderation by various Native American tribes as a condiment with other fresh greens. These plants have a tendency to absorb and concentrate selenium in their tissues from the soils in which they grow, and can be potentially very toxic if the roots or green parts of the plant are consumed. Highly alkaline soils increase the selenium levels in the plants. Indian paintbrush has similar health benefits to consuming garlic, though only if the flowers are eaten in small amounts and in moderation.[3]

The Ojibwe used a hairwash made from Indian paintbrush to make their hair glossy and full bodied, and as a treatment for rheumatism. The high selenium content of this plant has been cited as the reason for its effectiveness for these purposes.

Castilleja linariifolia is the state flower of Wyoming.[4]
Selected species

Castilleja affinis.jpg Castilleja affinis Coast Indian paintbrush
Castilleja ambigua.jpg Castilleja ambigua Paintbrush owl's clover
Castilleja angustifolia 1.jpg Castilleja angustifolia Northwestern Indian paintbrush
Castilleja annua Annual Indian paintbrush
Applegate paintbrush Castilleja applegatei flowerhead-and-wavy leaves.jpg Castilleja applegatei Applegate's Indian paintbrush, wavyleaf Indian paintbrush
Castilleja aquariensis Aquarius Plateau Indian paintbrush
Castillejaarachnoidea.jpg Castilleja arachnoidea Cobwebby Indian paintbrush
Castilleja arvensis (10539530484).jpg Castilleja arvensis Field Indian paintbrush
Castilleja attenuata.jpg Castilleja attenuata Narrowleaf owl's clover
Castilleja beldingii
Castilleja brevistyla.jpg Castilleja brevistyla
Castilleja campestris.jpg Castilleja campestris vernal pool Indian paintbrush
Castilleja caudata (7833509798).jpg Castilleja caudata Port Clarence Indian paintbrush
Castilleja cervina Deer Indian paintbrush
Castilleja christii TPrendusi lg.jpg Castilleja christii Christ's Indian paintbrush
Desert paintbrush Castilleja chromosa close front.jpg Castilleja chromosa Desert Indian paintbrush, desert paintbrush
Castillejacinerea.jpg Castilleja cinerea Ashgray Indian paintbrush
Castilleja coccinea.jpg Castilleja coccinea Scarlet Indian paintbrush, Scarlet painted-cup
Castilleja cusickii.jpg Castilleja cusickii Cusick's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja densiflora.jpg Castilleja densiflora
Castilleja ecuadorensis
Castilleja elegans (6186486989).jpg Castilleja elegans Elegant Indian paintbrush
Castilleja elmeri 7878.JPG Castilleja elmeri Elmer's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja exserta 8031.JPG Castilleja exserta Purple owl's clover, purple Indian paintbrush, exserted Indian paintbrush, escobita, formerly in Orthocarpus
Castillejafoliolosa.jpg Castilleja foliolosa Texas Indian paintbrush[5]
Castilleja fruticosa
Castilleja fulva Elko Indian paintbrush
Castilleja grisea.jpg Castilleja grisea
Castilleja guadalupensis (extinct)
Castilleja hispida 5187.JPG Castilleja hispida Harsh Indian paintbrush
Castilleja hyetophila Coastal red Indian paintbrush
Castilleja hyperborea Northern Indian paintbrush
Entire Leaf Indian Paintbrush.jpg Castilleja indivisa Entireleaf Indian paintbrush, Texas paintbrush
Castillejaintegra.JPG Castilleja integra Wholeleaf Indian paintbrush
Garañona (Castilleja integrifolia).jpg Castilleja integrifolia
Castilleja kaibabensis.jpg Castilleja kaibabensis Kaibab Indian paintbrush
Castilleja kerryana
Castilleja lacera
Castilleja lanata hololeuca 2.jpg Castilleja lanata Sierra woolly Indian paintbrush
Castilleja lasiorhyncha
Castillejalatifolia.jpg Castilleja latifolia
Castilleja lauta Rosy paintbrush
Castillejalemmonii.jpg Castilleja lemmonii Lemmon's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja levisecta.jpg Castilleja levisecta Golden paintbrush
Narrow-leaved Indian Paintbrush (NGM XXXI p515).jpg Castilleja linariifolia Narrowleaf Indian paintbrush
Castilleja lineariiloba.jpg Castilleja lineariiloba
Castilleja lutescens.jpg Castilleja lutescens Stiff yellow Indian paintbrush
Castilleja mendocinensis.jpg Castilleja mendocinensis
Castilleja miniata 0637.JPG Castilleja miniata Greater red Indian paintbrush
Castilleja minor ssp minor 1.jpg Castilleja minor Smallflower Indian paintbrush, lesser Indian paintbrush
Castillejamollis.JPG Castilleja mollis Softleaf Indian paintbrush
Castilleja mutis
Alpine paintbrush Castilleja nana green form.jpg Castilleja nana Alpine paintbrush
Castilleja neglecta.jpg Castilleja neglecta Tiburon Indian paintbrush
Castilleja nubigena
Western Yellow Paintbrush (Castilleja occidentalis) at Waterton Lakes National Park - Flickr - Jay Sturner.jpg Castilleja occidentalis Western Indian paintbrush
Castilleja ophiocephala
Castilleja pallescens inverta (5445775710).jpg Castilleja pallescens Pallid Indian paintbrush
Castilleja pallida v lapponica.jpg Castilleja pallida var. lapponica Boreal Indian paintbrush
Castilleja paramensis
Castilleja parviflora 1283.JPG Castilleja parviflora Small-flowered Indian paintbrush
Flickr - brewbooks - Castilleja parvula (1).jpg Castilleja parvula
Castilleja peirsonii Peirsons paintbrush red closeup.jpg Castilleja peirsonii Peirson's paintbrush
Castilleja pilosa
Castilleja plagiotoma Mojave Indian paintbrush
Castilleja praeterita
Castillejapruinosa.jpg Castilleja pruinosa
Castilleja pumila.jpg Castilleja pumila Lancetilla del Páramo
Castilleja purpurea.jpg Castilleja purpurea
Castilleja raupii.jpg Castilleja raupii Raup's Indian paintbrush, Raup's painted-cup
Castillejarhexifolia.jpg Castilleja rhexiifolia Rhexia-leaf Indian paintbrush, splitleaf Indian paintbrush
Castillejarubicundula.jpg Castilleja rubicundula Cream sacs
Castilleja rupicola 1.jpg Castilleja rupicola Cliff Indian paintbrush
Castilleja salsuginosa Monte Neva Indian paintbrush
Castilleja schizotricha.jpg Castilleja schizotricha
Pale Indian paintbrush - Andrey Zzharkikh.jpg Castilleja septentrionalis Labrador Indian paintbrush, northern paintbrush
Castilleja sessiliflora Colorado.jpg Castilleja sessiliflora Downy Indian paintbrush, downy paintbrush
Castilleja socorrensis
Castilleja subinclusa 7806.JPG Castilleja subinclusa
Castilleja suksdorfii 5912.JPG Castilleja suksdorfii Suksdorf's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja sulphurea habitus.jpg Castilleja sulphurea Sulphur Indian paintbrush
Castillejatenuis.jpg Castilleja tenuis Hairy owl's clover
Castilleja thompsonii 9759.JPG Castilleja thompsonii Thompson's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja tolucensis (Orobanchaceae).jpg Castilleja tolucensis
Castilleja wightii flower.jpg Castilleja wightii Wight's paintbrush
Castilleja unalaschensis 4351.png Castilleja unalaschcensis Alaska Indian paintbrush


"Genus: Castilleja Mutis ex L. f." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-03-30. Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. I: A-C. CRC Press. p. 455. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2.
Tilford, Gregory L. (1997). Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Mountain Press Publishing. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-87842-359-0.
Wyoming Statute 8-3-104 (Title 8) Archived 2008-05-11 at the Wayback Machine

"PLANTS Profile for Castilleja foliolosa (Texas Indian paintbrush)". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved March 9, 2013.

Further reading
Tomie dePaola (1988). The Legend of the Indian Paintbrush. Scholastic Books. ISBN 0-590-44706-8.

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