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Chrysogonum virginianum

Chrysogonum virginianum, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Engelmanniinae
Genus: Chrysogonum
Species: Chrysogonum virginianum
Varietas: C. v. var. australe – C. v. var. brevistolon

Chrysogonum virginianum L., 1753

Chrysogonum diotostephus DC.
Chrysogonum virginianum var. dentatum A.Gray
Diotostephus repens Cass.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
USA (District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 920. Reference page.


International Plant Names Index. 2018. Chrysogonum virginianum. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 06 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Chrysogonum virginianum in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 06. 2018. Chrysogonum virginianum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 06 Feb. 2018.
Hassler, M. 2018. Chrysogonum virginianum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Feb. 06. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Chrysogonum virginianum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
English: green and gold

Chrysogonum virginianum, the golden-knee,[2] green and gold,[3] or goldenstar, is a North American species of plants in the family Asteraceae. It is native to the eastern United States from New York State and Rhode Island south to Louisiana and the Florida Panhandle.[4][5]

The species is sometimes grown as a perennial ornamental because of its showy flowers. It is usually propagated by root cuttings.[6]


Formal botanical varieties of wild populations:

Chrysogonum virginianum var. australe (Alexander ex Small) H.E.Ahles - Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana
Chrysogonum virginianum var. brevistolon G.L.Nesom - Georgia, Alabama, Carolinas, Tennessee, Kentucky
Chrysogonum virginianum var. virginianum - from New York to South Carolina, west to Kentucky + Ohio

Chrysogonum virginianum is an herb up to 50 cm (20 inches) spreading by means of rhizomes. Flower heads are produced singly or in pairs, yellow, with both ray florets and disc florets.[8]

Leaf closeup

A picture of Chrysogonum virginianum var. australe


The Plant List, Chrysogonum virginianum L.
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Chrysogonum virginianum". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
Flora of North America, Chrysogonum Linnaeus
Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
Pink, A. (2004). Gardening for the Million. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
Nowicki, Marcin; Schilling, Edward E.; Boggess, Sarah L.; Houston, Logan C.; Huff, Matthew L.; Staton, Margaret E.; Lampley, Jayne A.; Trigiano, Robert N. (February 2019). "Development and Characterization of Genic Microsatellites for the Ornamental Plant Green and Gold (Chrysogonum virginianum)". HortScience. 54 (2): 395–400. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI13739-18. ISSN 0018-5345.
Flora of North America, Green and gold, Chrysogonum virginianum Linnaeus

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