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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales

Familia: Clusiaceae
Tribus: ClusieaeGarcinieaeSymphonieae

Genera: AllanblackiaArawakiaChrysochlamysClusiaDystovomitaGarciniaLorostemonMontrouzieraMoronobeaPentadesmaPlatoniaRheediaSymphoniaThysanostemonTovomitaTovomitopsis
Genus incertae sedis: Nouhuysia

Clusiaceae Lindl., Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 74. 1836, nom. cons.
Type genus: Clusia L. (1753


Clusioideae Burnett, Outlines Bot. 794. 1835, pro subfamilia.
Guttiferae Juss., Gen. Pl. 255. 4 Aug 1789, nom. cons., nom. alt. Clusiaceae.
Cambogiaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat. 98. 1834.
Type genus: Cambogia L.
Garciniaceae Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 222, 292. 1830.
Type genus: Garcinia L.
Mesuaceae Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin: 218. 1820.
Type genus: Mesua L.


Transferring Sub-family Kielmeyeroideae to a resurrected Calophyllaceae is now accepted and this leaves Sub-family Clusioideae here as Clusiaceae s.s.
Primary references

Lindley, J. 1836. A Natural System of Botany, ed. 2: 74.

Additional references

Marinho, L.C., Cai, L., Duan, X., Ruhfel, B.R., Fiaschi, P., Amorim, A.M., van den Berg, C. & Davis, C.C. 2019. Plastomes resolve generic limits within tribe Clusieae (Clusiaceae) and reveal the new genus Arawakia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 134: 142-151. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2019.02.005 Paywall Reference page.
Ruhfel, B.R., Bittrich, V., Gustafsson, M.H.G., Philbrick, C.T., Rutishauser, R., Stevens, P.F., & Davis, C.C. III. 2009. Systematics and biogeography of the clusioid clade (Malpighiales). P. 171, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract of Dissertation [1]. Accessed 2014 Sept. 17.
Ruhfel, B.R., Bittrich, V., Bove, C.P., Gustafsson, M.H., Philbrick, C.T., Rutishauser, R., Xi, Z. & Davis, C.C. 2011. Phylogeny of the clusioid clade (Malpighiales): evidence from the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. American Journal of Botany 98(2): 306-325. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000354 PDF Reference page.
Ruhfel, B.R., Stevens, P.F. & Davis, C.C. 2013. Combined morphological and molecular phylogeny of the clusioid clade (Malpighiales) and the placement of the ancient rosid macrofossil Paleoclusia. International Journal of Plant Science 174: 910–936. DOI: 10.1086/670668 Paywall PDF Reference page.
Ruhfel, B.R., Bove, C.P., Philbrick, C.T. & Davis, C.C. 2016. Dispersal largely explains the Gondwanan distribution of the ancient tropical clusioid plant clade. American Journal of Botany 103(6): 1117-1128. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1500537 Open access Reference page.
Wurdack, K.J. & Davis, C.C. 2009. Malpighiales phylogenetics: Gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the angiosperm tree of life. American Journal of Botany, 96(8): 1551-1570. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.0800207 PDF. Reference page.


Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Clusiaceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 July 16. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Clusiaceae. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 July 18. Reference page. 2021. Clusiaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 July 18.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Clusiaceae. Published online. Accessed: Sept. 18 2014.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Клузіевыя
English: Clusoids
suomi: Klusiakasvit
русский: Клузиевые
українська: Звіробійні
中文: 藤黄科

The Clusiaceae or Guttiferae Juss. (1789) (nom. alt. et cons. = alternative and valid name) are a family of plants including 13 genera and ca 750 species.[2] Several former members of Clusiacae are now placed in Calophyllaceae and Hypericaceae. They are mostly trees and shrubs,[3] with milky sap and fruits or capsules for seeds. The family is primarily tropical.[3] More so than many plant families, it shows large variation in plant morphology (for example, three to 10, fused or unfused petals, and many other traits).[3] According to the APG III, this family belongs to the order Malpighiales.

One feature which is sometimes found in this family, and rarely in others (e.g., Malpighiaceae), is providing pollinators with rewards other than pollen or nectar; specifically, some species offer resin which bees use in nest construction (all three rewards are found in different species of the Clusiaceae).[3]

Taxonomic history

The family Clusiaceae was divided by Cronquist into two subfamilies: the Clusioideae (typical subfamily) and the Hypericoideae. The latter was often treated as a family—the Hypericaceae or St. John's wort family. Elements of the Hypericoideae are more common in northern temperate areas and those of the Clusioideae are centered in the tropics.

Later classifications, however, divide the family in a finer way. Molecular studies have shown that the family Podostemaceae—the riverweeds—as well as the Bonnetiaceae are nested in this group. Their inclusions make the Clusiaceae in a wide sense polyphyletic, and Stevens's subfamilies need to be recognised at family level: Clusioideae as Clusiaceae sensu stricto; Hypericoideae as Hypericaceae; and Kielmeyeroideae as Calophyllaceae.[4][5]

Following Ruhfel et al. (2011) [6]

Tribe Clusieae


Tribe Garcinieae

Garcinia (including Rheedia) - saptree, mangosteen

Garcinia tinctoria
Clusia grandiflora

Tribe Symphonieae


Montrouziera sphaeroidea
See also

List of Clusiaceae genera

Symphonia globulifera

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
Gustafsson, Mats H. G. (2002), "Phylogeny of Clusiaceae Based on rbcL sequences", International Journal of Plant Sciences, 163 (6): 1045–1054, doi:10.1086/342521, JSTOR 3080291, S2CID 85307271
Stevens, P. F. (1980). A revision of the Old World species of Calophyllum (Guttiferae). J. Arnold Arboretum 61:117–699.
APG III (2009)

Ruhfel, B. R., V. Bittrich, C. P. Bove, M. H. G. Gustafsson, C. T. Philbrick, R. Rutishauser, Z. Xi, and C. C. Davis. (2011) Phylogeny of the Clusioid Clade (Malpighiales): Evidence from the Plastid and Mitochondrial Genomes. American Journal of Botany 98: 306–25.


van Rijckevorsel, Paul (November 2002). "(1564) Proposal to Conserve the Name Platonia insignis against Moronobea esculenta (Guttiferae)". Taxon. 51 (4): 813–815. doi:10.2307/1555050. JSTOR 1555050.

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