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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordo: Ranunculales

Familia: Ranunculaceae
Subfamilia: Ranunculoideae
Tribus: Delphinieae
Genus: Consolida
Sectiones: C. sect. Aconitella – C. sect. Consolida

C. aconiti – C. ajacis – C. anthoroidea – C. arenaria – C. armeniaca – C. aucheri – C. axilliflora – C. baluchistanica – C. barbata – C. brevicornis – C. camptocarpa – C. coelesyriaca – C. cornuta – C. cruciata – C. deserti – C. deserti-syriaci – C. divaricata – C. flava – C. glandulosa – C. gombaultii – C. halophila – C. hellespontica – C. hohenackeri – C. incana – C. kabuliana – C. kandaharica – C. leptocarpa – C. linarioides – C. lineolata – C. lorestanica – C. mauritanica – C. oligantha – C. oliveriana – C. olopetala – C. orientalis – C. paniculata – C. paradoxa – C. persica – C. phrygia – C. pubescens – C. pusilla – C. raveyi – C. regalis – C. rugulosa – C. saccata – C. samia – C. schlagintweitii – C. scleroclada – C. staminosa – C. stapfiana – C. stenocarpa – C. stocksiana – C. sulphurea – C. teheranica – C. tenuissima – C. thirkeana – C. tomentosa – C. trigonelloides – C. tuntasiana – C. uechtritziana

Consolida (DC.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 711 (1821 publ. 1822).

Type species: Consolida regalis S.F.Gray


Delphinium sect. Consolida DC., Syst. Nat. 1: 341. 1817.
Ceratosanthus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 30. 1866, non Ceratosanthes Adans. (1763)

Note: This genus is now often accepted as a synonym of Delphinium and taxon page should be considered for dismantling Govaerts et al. (2019) cf. Hassler (2019).
Primary references

Gray, S.F. 1821. A natural arrangement of British plants, according to their relations to each other, as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c. including those cultivated for use; with an introduction to botany, in which the terms newly introduced are explained; illustrated by figures. 2: i–viii, 1–757. BHL Reference page.


Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Consolida in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2009 Nov 23.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Consolida in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Dec. 20. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Consolida. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar. 8. Reference page.

Vernacular names

башҡортса: Ҡамсат сәскә
čeština: Ostrožka
dansk: Kornridderspore
Deutsch: Feldrittersporne
English: Knight's-spur
فارسی: زبان در قفا
suomi: Kukonkannukset
Gaeilge: Sála fuiseoige
hornjoserbsce: Wotrožnik
magyar: Szarkaláb
日本語: デルフィニウム属
ქართული: სოსანი
lietuvių: Raguolis
norsk bokmål: Åkerriddersporer
Nederlands: Ridderspoor
norsk nynorsk: Småriddarsporeslekta
polski: Ostróżeczka
русский: Живокость, Сокирки
slovenčina: Ostrôžka
svenska: Åkerriddarsporresläktet
українська: Сокирки
中文: 飞燕草属

Consolida is a genus of about 40 species of annual flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native to western Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia. Phylogenetic studies show that Consolida is actually an annual clade nested within the genus Delphinium[1][2] and it has been treated as a synonym of Delphinium in Kew's Plants of the World Online.[3]

Consolida differs from other species of Delphinium (mostly perennials) in the flower structure, with only one united petal, rather than the four separate petals (or more in cultivars) found in other delphiniums, and in the fruit, which comprises a single follicle, instead of a cluster of 3~5 together.

It is a popular garden plant and cut flower, grown from seed every year, with numerous cultivars in shades of pink, blue, purple and white.[4] In seed catalogues it is usually labelled as larkspur, a common name referring to the shape of the spurred calyx, with "delphinium" reserved for its perennial relatives.

There are more than 50 species in Consolida:[5][6]

Consolida aconiti (syn. Delphinium aconiti)
Consolida ajacis (syn. Consolida ambigua; Consolida baluchistanica; Delphinium ajacis) — rocket larkspur: Europe, Cyprus, Turkey
Consolida anthoroidea (syn. Delphinium anthoroideum)
Consolida arenaria (syn. Delphinium arenarium)
Consolida armeniaca (syn. Delphinium armeniacum)
Consolida aucheri (syn. Delphinium aucheri)
Consolida axilliflora (syn. Delphinium axilliflorum)
Consolida barbata (syn. Delphinium barbatum)
Consolida brevicornis (syn. Delphinium brevicorne)
Consolida camptocarpa (syn. Delphinium camptocarpum) — Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan
Consolida coelesyriaca (syn. Delphinium coelesyriacum)
Consolida cornuta (syn. Delphinium cornutum)
Consolida cruciata (syn. Delphinium cruciatum)
Consolida deserti-syriaci (syn. Delphinium deserti-syriaci)
Consolida flava (syn. Delphinium flavum)
Consolida glandulosa (syn. Delphinium glandulosum)
Consolida gombaultii (syn. Delphinium gombaultii)
Consolida hellespontica (syn. Delphinium hellesponticum)
Consolida hohenackeri (syn. Delphinium hohenackeri)
Consolida incana (syn. Delphinium incanum)
Consolida kabuliana (syn. Delphinium kabulianum)
Consolida kandaharica (syn. Delphinium kandaharicum)
Consolida leptocarpa (syn. Delphinium leptocarpum)
Consolida linarioides (syn. Delphinium linarioides)
Consolida lineolata (syn. Delphinium lineolatum)
Consolida lorestanica (syn. Delphinium lorestanicum)
Consolida mauritanica (syn. Delphinium mauritanicum)
Consolida oligantha (syn. Delphinium oliganthum)
Consolida oliveriana (syn. Delphinium oliverianum) — Iran, Iraq, Turkey
Consolida olopetala (syn. Delphinium olopetalum)
Consolida orientalis (syn. Delphinium orientale) — eastern larkspur: North Africa, Europe
Consolida persica (syn. Consolida halophila; Delphinium persicum)
Consolida phrygia (syn. Delphinium phrygium)
Consolida pubescens (syn. Delphinium pubescens) — North Africa, Europe
Consolida pusilla (syn. Consolida pygmaea; Delphinium pusillum)
Consolida raveyi (syn. Delphinium raveyi)
Consolida regalis (syn. Delphinium consolida) — field larkspur: Western Asia, Europe
C. r. subsp. divaricata (syn. Consolida divaricata)
C. r. subsp. paniculata
C. r. subsp. regalis
Consolida rugulosa (syn. Delphinium rugulosum) — Western Asia, Central Asia
Consolida saccata (syn. Delphinium saccatum)
Consolida samia (syn. Delphinium samium)
Consolida schlagintweitii (syn. Delphinium schlagintweitii)
Consolida scleroclada (syn. Delphinium sclerocladum)
Consolida staminosa (syn. Delphinium staminosum)
Consolida stapfiana (syn. Delphinium stapfianum)
Consolida stenocarpa (syn. Delphinium stenocarpum)
Consolida stocksiana (syn. Delphinium stocksianum)
Consolida sulphurea (syn. Delphinium sulphureum) — Turkey
Consolida teheranica (syn. Delphinium teheranicum)
Consolida tenuissima (syn. Delphinium tenuissimum)
Consolida thirkeana (syn. Delphinium thirkeanum)
Consolida tomentosa (syn. Delphinium tomentosum)
Consolida trigonelloides (syn. Delphinium trigonelloides)
Consolida tuntasiana (syn. Delphinium tuntasianum)
Consolida uechtritziana (syn. Delphinium uechtritzianum)


All parts of the plant are toxic to humans, especially the seeds.

Jabbour, Florian; Renner, Susanne S. (2011). "Consolida and Aconitella are an annual clade of Delphinium (Ranunculaceae) that diversified in the Mediterranean basin and the Irano-Turanian region". Taxon. 60 (4): 1029–1040. ISSN 0040-0262.
Jabbour, Florian; Renner, Susanne S. (2012-03-01). "A phylogeny of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae) shows that Aconitum is nested within Delphinium and that Late Miocene transitions to long life cycles in the Himalayas and Southwest China coincide with bursts in diversification". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (3): 928–942. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.12.005. ISSN 1055-7903.
"Consolida Gray". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
"Consolida". Catalogue of Life - 2020-09-01 Beta : Taxonomic tree. Retrieved 2020-09-25.

"Consolida". The Plant List. Retrieved 2020-09-25.

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