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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Ericaceae
Subfamilia: Enkianthoideae
Genus: Enkianthus
Sectiones: E. sect. Andromedina – E. sect. Enkiantella – E. sect. Enkianthus – E. sect. Meisteria
Species overview

E. campanulatus – E. cernuus – E. chinensis – E. deflexus – E. nudipes – E. pauciflorus – E. perulatus – E. quinqueflorus – E. ruber – E. serotinus – E. serrulatus – E. sikokianus – E. subsessilis – E. taiwanienus – E. tubulatus

Enkianthus Lour. (1790)

Type species: E. quinqueflorus Lour.


Meisteria Siebold & Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(3): 127. t. 3A. 1846, nom. illeg. non Scopoli (1777).
Type species: M. cernua Siebold & Zucc.
Tritomodon Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(1): 584. 1848.
Type species: T. japonicus Turcz.

Primary references

Loureiro, J. de. 1790. Flora Cochinchinensis: sistens plantas in regno Cochinchina nascentes. Quibus accedunt aliae observatae in Sinensi Imperio, Africa orientali, Indiaeque locis variis. Omnes dispositae secundum systema sexuale linnaeanum. Tomus I. Pp. I–XX, 1–353. Typis, et expensis academicis, Ulyssipone [Lisbon]. BHL Reference page. : 258, 276.

Additional references

Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Enkianthus in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2011 Dec 12.


Hassler, M. 2020. Enkianthus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Apr 21. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Enkianthus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Apr 21. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Enkianthus. Published online. Accessed: Apr 21 2020. 2020. Enkianthus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Apr 21.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Enkianthus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
suomi: Kellopensaat

Enkianthus is a genus of shrubs or small trees in the heath family (Ericaceae).[1] Its native range is in Asia, as far west as the eastern Himalayas, as far south as Indochina, and as far north and east as China and Japan.[1]

This genus is considered cladistically the most basal member of the Ericaceae, that is, the descendant of the common ancestor of that Ericaceae that branched earliest from the rest of that family. It is classified as the sole member of the subfamily Enkianthoideae.

Twelve to 15 species are included in the genus by various authors.[2] Species include:[1][3]

Image Name Common name Distribution
Enkianthus campanulatus 4.JPG Enkianthus campanulatus (Miq.) G. Nicholson redvein enkianthus Japan
Enkianthus cernuus f. rubens 1.JPG Enkianthus cernuus (Sieb. & Zucc.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Makino Japan
Enkianthus chinensis.jpg Enkianthus chinensis Franch. China
Enkianthus deflexus stem.jpg Enkianthus deflexus (Griff.) C.K.Schneid. China, Himalaya, Nepal
Enkianthus nudipes (Honda) Ohwi
Enkianthus pallidiflorus Craib
Enkianthus pauciflorus E.H.Wilson China
Enkianthus perulatus3.jpg Enkianthus perulatus C.K.Schneid. China, Japan
Enkianthus quinqueflorus in Hong Kong.jpg Enkianthus quinqueflorus Lour. China
Enkianthus recurvus Craib
Enkianthus ruber Dop Vietnam
Enkianthus serotinus Chun & W.P.Fang China
Enkianthus serrulatus (E.H.Wilson) C.K.Schneid. China
Enkianthus sikokianus 1.JPG Enkianthus sikokianus (Palib.) Ohwi
Enkianthus subsessilis 1.JPG Enkianthus subsessilis (Miq.) Makino
Enkianthus taiwanianus T.S.Ying Taiwan
Enkianthus tectus Craib
Enkianthus tubulatus P. C. Tam.


Several species are found in cultivation, notably E. campanulatus, E. cernuus and E. perulatus. E. cernuus f. rubens (drooping red enkianthus) has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.[4][5]


"Enkianthus Loureiro". Flora of China.
Sarwar, A. and H. Takahashi (2006). Pollen morphology of Enkianthus (Ericaceae) and its taxonomic significance. Grana 45 161-74.
"RHS Plantfinder - Enkianthus cernuus f. rubens". Retrieved 12 January 2018.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 35. Retrieved 24 January 2018.

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