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Galium trifidum

Galium trifidum (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Rubioideae
Tribus: Rubieae
Genus: Galium
Species: Galium trifidum
Subspecies: G. t. subsp. brevipes – G. t. subsp. columbianum – G. t. subsp. halophilum – G. t. subsp. subbiflorum

Galium trifidum L. Sp. Pl. 1:105. 1753.

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 105. Reference page.


USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Galium trifidum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: March 3, 2019.

Vernacular names

English: Threepetal bedstraw, Three-petal bedstraw
suomi: Pikkumatara
日本語: ホソバノヨツバムグラ(広義)
한국어: 가는네잎갈퀴
中文: 小葉四葉葎

Galium trifidum is a species of flowering plant in the coffee family, known by the common name three-petal bedstraw.[1] It grows widespread in the arctic, temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere: northern and central Asia (Siberia, the Russian Far East, China, Korea, Japan, Kazakhstan), northern and eastern Europe (Scandinavia, France, Austria, Poland, Russia, v, Baltic states) and much of North America (from Greenland and the Aleutians as far south as Oaxaca and Hispaniola).[2][3][4]

Galium trifidum is a usually perennial herb forming tangles of thin stems up to half a meter long, ringed with whorls of several linear to oval leaves. The inflorescence is a cluster of small white or pinkish flowers, each with usually three petal-like lobes in its corolla.[5][6][7]

Five subspecies are currently recognized (May 2014):[2]

Galium trifidum subsp. brevipes (Fernald & Wiegand) Á.Löve & D.Löve - Canada and the northern United States (Dakotas to Maine)[4]
Galium trifidum subsp. columbianum (Rydb.) Hultén - Russian Far East (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorye, Sakhalin), Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Alaska, British Columbia, Washington state, Oregon, California, Nevada, Idaho, Montana
Galium trifidum subsp. halophilum (Fernald & Wiegand) Puff - Quebec, Newfoundland, Canadian Maritimes, Maine, Massachusetts
Galium trifidum subsp. subbiflorum (Wiegand) Puff - Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Alberta, British Columbia, high elevations in the western United States as far south as California and New Mexico
Galium trifidum subsp. trifidum - widespread throughout most of species range


Lee, Sangtae; Chang, Kae Sun, eds. (2015). English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. p. 475. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Retrieved 3 March 2019 – via Korea Forest Service.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Biota of North America Program, Galium trifidum
Biota of North America Program, Galium brevipes
Cody, W. J. 1996. Flora of the Yukon Territory i–xvii, 1–669. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Inst. of Science, Ann Arbor.
Moss, E. H. 1983. Flora of Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

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