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Gardenia taitensis

Gardenia taitensis (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Ixoroideae
Tribus: Gardenieae
Genus: Gardenia
Subgenus: G. subg. Gardenia
Species Gardenia taitensis

Gardenia taitensis DC. ex Drake, Fl. Polynésie Franç. 91. 1893.

Gardenia taitensis f. genuina Reinecke, Reinecke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 683. 1898, nom. inadmiss.
Gardenia taitensis f. minor Reinecke, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 684. 1898.
Gardenia weissichii H.St.John, Phytologia 39: 108. 1978.

Primary references

Drake del Castillo, E. 1893. Flore de la Polynésie Française: description des plantes vasculaires qui croissent spontanément ou qui sont généralement cultivées aux Illes de la Societé, Marquise. I–XXIV, pp. 352, 1 pl. Reference page. [see page 91]


Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Gardenia taitensis in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 07 05. Reference page.

Vernacular names
svenska: Tahitigardenia

Gardenia taitensis, also called Tahitian gardenia[2] or tiaré flower, is a species of plant in the family Rubiaceae. It is an evergreen tropical shrub that grows to 4 m (10 ft) tall and has glossy dark green leaves that are 5–16 cm (2–6 in) long and are oppositely arranged along the stem. The flower is creamy white and pinwheel-shaped with 5–9 lobes, each 2–4 cm (0.8–2 in) long and fragrant. Native to the highland shores of the South Pacific, it has the distinction of being one of the few cultivated plants native to Polynesia. It is the national flower of French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

The name Tahitian gardenia is somewhat a misnomer because it is neither native nor naturalized in Tahiti. The first acceptable scientific name for the plant was based on Tahitian specimens collected by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1824. Hence the scientific name of Gardenia taitensis, and the English name of Tahitian gardenia or Tiaré flower. It was first collected in Tahiti, by the Forsters on Captain Cook's first Pacific voyage (1768–1771), although it was misidentified as Gardenia florida.[3]

The plant originates from Melanesia and Western Polynesia. It is an aboriginal introduction to the Cook Islands and French Polynesia and possibly Hawaii.[4]

Common uses
The flower is used to make Monoi Tiaré Tahiti, a perfume-oil made by infusing the blossoms in coconut oil.

Polynesian people in the pacific islands use the extremely fragrant blooms in their flower necklaces, which are called "Ei" in the Cook Islands, "Hei" in Tahiti or "Lei" in Hawaii.
In some Pacific island traditions, wearing a flower indicates relationship status. A flower worn on the left ear means the person is taken and on the right ear means available.
The plant is used in traditional herbalism. For example, in Tonga a bark infusion is dripped into the nose, eyes, and mouth to treat "ghost sickness". In Samoa, parts of the plant are used for inflammation.[5]
The flower is used to make Monoi Tiare Tahiti, a perfume-oil made by infusing the blossoms in coconut oil (see enfleurage).[6]
Tiaré is also used in niche perfumery but its prohibitively high cost excludes use in commercial perfumery. Notable examples include Tiare by Ormonde Jayne launched in 2009[7] and Tiare by Chantecaille.[8] The Tiaré flowers are hand picked and then laid unopened in oil for 15 days to obtain the extract.


"Gardenia taitensis". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2020-07-21.
"Gardenia taitensis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 2020-07-21.
Cook Islands Biodiversity & Natural Heritage Database : Gardenia taitensis - Tahitian Gardenia
Gardenia taitensis - National Tropical Garden Plant Database
Polynesian herbal medicine By W. Arthur Whistler (1992) p. 52, 69, 150 Google Books
The History of Monoi Tiare Tahiti at
Ormonde Jayne - Tiare Perfume Collection Archived 2011-04-22 at the Wayback Machine by Linda Pilkington
Chantecaille Tiare Perfume Archived 2011-07-08 at the Wayback Machine at

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