Fine Art

Holarrhena pubescens

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Apocynaceae
Subfamilia: Apocynoideae
Tribus: Malouetieae
Subtribus: Malouetiinae
Genus: Holarrhena
Species: Holarrhena pubescens

Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G.Don, 1837

Echites pubescens Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13: 524 (1822), nom. illeg.
Chonemorpha pubescens (Wall.) G.Don in R.Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3: 458 (1839).
Holarrhena antidysenterica var. pubescens (Wall.) J.L.Stewart & Brandis, Forest Fl. N.W. India: 326 (1874).
Elytropus pubescens (Wall.) Miers, Apocyn. S. Amer.: 114 (1878).
Echites adglutinatus Burm.f., Fl. Indica: 68 (1768), provisionally listed as a synonym.
Echites antidysentericus Roth, Syst. Veg. 4: 394 (1819), nom. illeg.
Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall., Numer. List: n.º 1672 (1829), nom. nud.
Chonemorpha antidysenterica G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 76 (1837).
Holarrhena codaga G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 78 (1837).
Holarrhena villosa Aiton ex Loudon, Hort. Brit., new ed., Suppl. 2: 641 (1839).
Holarrhena antidysenterica (G.Don) Wall. ex A.DC. in Candolle, Prodr. 8: 413 (1844).
Holarrhena malaccensis Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: t (1298) (1848).
Physetobasis macrocarpa Hassk., Verslagen Meded. Afd. Natuurk. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. 5: 99 (1857).
Holarrhena febrifuga Klotzsch in W.C.H.Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6(1): 277 (1861).
Holarrhena glabra Klotzsch in W.C.H.Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6(1): 279 (1861).
Holarrhena tettensis Klotzsch in W.C.H.Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6(1): 278 (1861).
Holarrhena macrocarpa (Hassk.) Fern.-Vill. in F.M.Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4(13A): 130 (1880).
Holarrhena fischeri K.Schum. in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 316 (1895).
Holarrhena perrotii Spire, Caoutchouc Indo-Chine: 142 (1906).
Holarrhena pierrei Spire, Caoutchouc Indo-Chine: 143 (1906).
Nerium sinense W.Hunter, J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 53: 81 (1909).
Holarrhena antidysenterica var. macrantha Kerr in W.G.Craib, Fl. Siam. 2: 449 (1939).
Holarrhena glaberrima Markgr., Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 1: 28 (1950).

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Africa
D.R. Congo (Zaire), Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Wallich, N. 1837. A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants... London 4: 78.


Hassler, M. 2018. Holarrhena pubescens. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Sep 22. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Holarrhena pubescens in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Sep 22. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Holarrhena pubescens. Published online. Accessed: Sep 22 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Holarrhena pubescens in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Sep 22. 2018. Holarrhena pubescens. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Sep 22.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Holarrhena pubescens in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Koorspeulboom
English: Fever pod
eesti: Pasa-kutsapõõsas
தமிழ்: குடசப்பாலை

Holarrhena pubescens is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae. It is native to central and southern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, and parts of China.[1][2][3][4][5] [6][7] In Cambodia, it is called /tɨk dɑh kʰlaː thɔm/ ទឹកដោះខ្លាធំ big tiger milk or /kʰlaɛɲ kŭəŋ/ ខ្លែងគង់ invulnerable kite.[8] These seeds are sold as indraja (इनद्राजा) for Ayurvedic medicine in India.

"World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
"Holarrhena pubescens". Flora of China. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
Da Silva MC, Izidine S, Amude AB. A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique (PDF) (Report). Pretoria: Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report (SABONET). pp. 1–184.
Strugnell AM (2006). "A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi". National Botanic Garden of Belgium. 34: 1–199.
Middleton DJ (January 2007). "Apocynaceae (subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae)". Flora Malesiana. Series 1, Spermatophyta. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff N.V. 18 (1): 1–52.
Timberlake JR, Bayliss J, Alves T, Francisco J, Harris T, Nangoma D, de Sousa C (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi (Report). Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award. Vol. 15. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 1–71.
Middleton DJ (2011). Flora of peninsular Malaysia , II. Vol. 2. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia. pp. 1–235.

Leti M, Hul S, Fouché JG, Cheng SK, David B (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge [Photographic Flora of Cambodia] (in French). Editions Privat. p. 81.

Further reading

Dressler S, Schmidt M, Zizka G (2014). "Holarrhena pubescens". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World