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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Helenieae
Subtribus: Tetraneurinae
Genus: Hymenoxys
Species: H. ambigens – H. anthemoides – H. bigelovii – H. brachyactis – H. brandegeei – H. cabrerae – H. cooperi – H. grandiflora – H. helenioides – H. hoopesii – H. insignis – H. integrifolia – H. jamesii – H. lemmonii – H. odorata – H. perpygmaea – H. pinetorum – H. quinquesquamata – H. richardsonii – H. robusta – H. rusbyi – H. subintegra – H. texana – H. tweediei – H. vaseyi

Source(s) of checklist:

Hymenoxys Cass., 1828

Type species: Hymenoxys anthemoides (Juss.) Cass.


Plummera A.Gray
Dugaldia Cass.
Actinella Juss. ex Nutt.
Phileozera Buckley
Macdougalia A.Heller


Cass., Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, ed. 2, 55: 278–279. 1828.


International Plant Names Index. 2018. Hymenoxys. Published online. Accessed: January 29 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Hymenoxys in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 29. 2018. Hymenoxys. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 29.
Hassler, M. 2018. Hymenoxys. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 29. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Rubberweed, bitterweed

Hymenoxys (rubberweed or bitterweed) is a genus of plants in the sunflower family, native to North and South America.[3][2][4] It was named by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini in 1828.[2]

Plants of this genus are toxic to sheep due to the presence of the sesquiterpene lactone hymenoxon.[5][6][7]


Hymenoxys ambigens - Pinaleno Mountain rubberweed - Arizona New Mexico
Hymenoxys anthemoides - Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina
Hymenoxys biennis - Utah
Hymenoxys bigelovii - Utah Arizona New Mexico
Hymenoxys brachyactis - East View rubberweed - New Mexico
Hymenoxys brandegeei - Arizona New Mexico Colorado
Hymenoxys cabrerae - Argentina
Hymenoxys californica - California, Baja California
Hymenoxys chrysanthemoides - San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Zacatecas, México State, Puebla, Oaxaca, Hidalgo
Hymenoxys cooperi - Cooper's rubberweed - California Nevada Arizona Utah Idaho Oregon New Mexico
Hymenoxys grandiflora - New Mexico Colorado Wyoming Montana Utah Idaho
Hymenoxys helenioides - intermountain rubberweed - Arizona New Mexico Colorado Utah
Hymenoxys hoopesii - owl claws - New Mexico Colorado Wyoming Montana Utah Idaho Oregon Nevada California
Hymenoxys insignis - Nuevo León, Coahuila, Chihuahua
Hymenoxys jamesii - Arizona
Hymenoxys lemmonii - Lemmon's rubberweed - Arizona Oregon Nevada California
Hymenoxys multiflora - Texas New Mexico
Hymenoxys mutica - California
Hymenoxys odorata - bitter rubberweed - California Arizona New Mexico Texas Oklahoma Colorado Kansas Maine South Carolina Alabama, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas
Hymenoxys quinquesquamata - rincon rubberweed - Arizona New Mexico
Hymenoxys richardsonii - pingue rubberweed, Colorado rubberweed - Alberta, Saskatchewan, Montana Idaho Wyoming Utah Colorado New Mexico Arizona Texas Nebraska North Dakota Nevada
Hymenoxys robusta - Bolivia, Argentina, Peru
Hymenoxys rusbyi - Arizona New Mexico
Hymenoxys subintegra - Arizona rubberweed - Arizona Utah
Hymenoxys texana - prairie dawn - Texas
Hymenoxys tweediei - Argentina
Hymenoxys vaseyi - Texas New Mexico

formerly included[11]

Hymenoxys acaulis is now called Tetraneuris acaulis
Hymenoxys argentea now Tetraneuris argentea
Hymenoxys depressa now Tetraneuris torreyana
Hymenoxys glabra now Tetraneuris scaposa
Hymenoxys herbacea now Tetraneuris herbacea
Hymenoxys integrifolia now Helenium integrifolium
Hymenoxys ivesiana now Tetraneuris ivesiana
Hymenoxys lapidicola now Tetraneuris torreyana
Hymenoxys linearifolia now Tetraneuris linearifolia
Hymenoxys scaposa now Tetraneuris scaposa
Hymenoxys torreyana now Tetraneuris torreyana
Hymenoxys turneri now Tetraneuris turneri


"Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist". Archived from the original on 2014-12-02. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
Tropicos, Hymenoxys Cass.
Cassini, Alexandre Henri Gabriel de, in Cuvier, F. 1828. Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles [Second edition] 55: 278–279in French
Flora of North America, Bitterweed, rubberweed, Hymenoxys Cassini 1828.
Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2
Pfeiffer, F. A. and M. C. Calhoun. (1987). Effects of environmental, site, and phenological factors on hymenoxon content of bitterweed, Hymenoxys odorata. Journal of Animal Science 65 1553-62.
Texas A&M University, Toxicity: H. odorata Archived 2007-07-03 at the Wayback Machine
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
Turner, B. L. 2013. The comps of Mexico. A systematic account of the family Asteraceae (chapter 11: tribe Helenieae). Phytologia Memoirs 16: 1–100.
The Plant List search for Hymenoxys
The Plant List, search for Hymenoxys

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