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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Millerieae
Subtribus: Milleriinae
Genus: Ichthyothere
Species: I. connata – I. cordata – I. cunabi – I. davidsei – I. elliptica – I. garcia-barrigae – I. grandifolia – I. granvillei – I. hirsuta – I. integrifolia – I. latifolia – I. linearis – I. macdanielii – I. matogrossensis – I. mollis – I. palustris – I. pastazensis – I. perfoliata – I. peruviana – I. petiolata – I. rufa – I. scandens – I. suffruticosa – I. terminalis – I. ternifolia – I. woodii
Name

Ichthyothere Mart., in Buchner, Repert. Pharm. 35: 195. (1830)

Type species: Ichthyothere cunabi Mart., in Buchner, Repert. Pharm. 35: 195. (1830)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Latreillea DC. Prodr. 5: 504. (1836)

References

Martius, C.F.P. von 1830. Repertorium für die Pharmacie 35: 195.
Hassler, M. 2018. Ichthyothere. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Jan. 29. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Ichthyothere. Published online. Accessed: Jan. 29 2018.
Tropicos.org 2018. Ichthyothere. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 29 Jan. 2018.

Ichthyothere is a genus of flowering plants, found in parts of South America (the Amazon) and Central America.[1][2][3]

The name ichthyothere literally translates as fish poison. These plants' active constituent is a chemical called ichthyothereol, which is a polyyne compound that is highly toxic to fish and mammals.[4] Ichthyothere terminalis leaves have traditionally been used to make poisoned bait by indigenous peoples of the lower Amazon basin.[4]
Ichthyothereol, a potent fish poison found in members of this genus

This genus is characterized by the small capitulum with few (usually one or two) fertile ray florets. It lacks an expanded outer series of herbaceous involucral bracts or phyllaries. These tend to be much reduced.

Ichthyothere scandens and Ichthyothere garcia-barrigae, both found at elevations above 1,000m, belong to a unique subgenus within Ichthyothere. The other species are small herbs with an erect stem, showing tightly clustered or glomerulate groups of capitula. They occur below 1,000 m elevation.

Its taxonomic status has been revised several times. It was classified in the subtribes Melampodiinae, Milleriinae and then in a group of unclassified taxa. Recent molecular phylogenetic research has now placed the genus Ichthyothere in the subtribe Espeletiinae. It may be a sister taxon to the Espeletia complex.[5]

Species

Ichthyothere agrestis
Ichthyothere connata
Ichthyothere cordata
Ichthyothere davidsei
Ichthyothere elliptica
Ichthyothere garcia-barrigae
Ichthyothere grandifolia
Ichthyothere granvillei
Ichthyothere hirsuta
Ichthyothere integrifolia
Ichthyothere latifolia
Ichthyothere macdanielii
Ichthyothere matogrossensis
Ichthyothere mollis
Ichthyothere palustris
Ichthyothere perfoliata
Ichthyothere peruviana
Ichthyothere scandens
Ichthyothere suffruticosa
Ichthyothere terminalis

References

Martius, Carl Friedrich Philipp von. 1830. Repertorium für die Pharmacie 35: 195
Tropicos, Ichthyothere Mart.
Robinson H., 1980 Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). XXVI. New species of Ichthyothere. Phytologia 47: 128-128
Cascon, Seiva C.; Mors, Walter B.; Tursch, Bernard M.; Aplin, Robin T.; Durham, Lois J. (1965). "Ichthyothereol and Its Acetate, the Active Polyacetylene Constituents of Ichthyothere terminalis (Spreng.) Malme, a Fish Poison from the Lower Amazon". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 87 (22): 5237–5241. doi:10.1021/ja00950a044. ISSN 0002-7863. PMID 5844817.
Molecular phylogenetics of the Espeletia complex (Asteraceae)

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