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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Ocimeae
Subtribus: Lavandulinae
Genus: Lavandula
Subgenera: L. subg. Fabricia – L. subg. Lavandula – L. subg. Sabaudia

L. angustifolia – L. antineae – L. aristibracteata – L. atriplicifolia – L. bipinnata – L. bramwellii – L. buchii – L. canariensis – L. citriodora – L. coronopifolia – L. dentata – L. dhofarensis – L. erythraeae – L. galgalloensis – L. gibsonii – L. hasikensis – L. lanata - L. latifolia - L. macra – L. mairei - L. maroccana – L. minutolii – L. multifida – L. nimmoi – L. pedunculata – L. pinnata – L. pubescens – L. qishnensis – L. rejdalii – L. rotundifolia – L. saharica – L. samhanensis – L. setifera – L. somaliensis – L. stoechas – L. sublepidota – L. subnuda – L. tenuisecta – L. viridis


L. × alportelensis – L. × cadevalli – L. × cavanillesii – L. × ginginsii – L. × heterophylla – L. × intermedia – L. × limae – L. × losae


Lavandula L., Sp. Pl. 2: 572 (1753); Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 249 (1754).

Lectotypus: L. spica L., nom. rej. designated by M.L. Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 164. Aug. 1929 = L. angustifolia


Lavendula Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).
Chaetostachys Benth. in N.Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 19 1830, publ (1831).
Isinia Rech.f., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 99(1): 47 (1952).
Fabricia Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 188 (1763).
Sabaudia Buscal. & Muschl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 491 (1913).
Stoechas Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 28 Jan 1754.
Styphonia Medik., Staatsw. Vorles. Churpf. Phys. Oek. Ges. 1: 230 (1791).

Native distribution areas:

Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Southeastern Europe
Greece, Italy, Kriti, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe.
Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara.
Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira.
West Tropical Africa
Mali, Mauritania, Niger.
Northeast Tropical Africa
Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan.
Western Asia
Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey.
Arabian Peninsula
Gulf States,Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen.
Indian Subcontinent
Bangladesh, India.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 572. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 249. Reference page.

Additional references

Upson, T.M. & Andrews, S. 2004. The genus Lavandula (A Botanical Magazine Monograph). Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens and Portland, OR: Timber Press, xiv + 442 pp. ISBN 0-88192-642-6 Reference page.
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Lavandula in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 21. Reference page. 2014. Lavandula. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 21.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Lavandula. Published online. Accessed: June 21 2014.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Lavandula in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2019 Mar 16.

Vernacular names
العربية: ضرم (جنس)
azərbaycanca: Lavanda
Boarisch: Lavéndel (Goddung)
беларуская: Лаванда
български: Лавандула
বাংলা: ল্যাভেন্ডার
བོད་ཡིག: དྲི་ཞིམ་ཅན།
brezhoneg: Lavand
bosanski: Lavanda
català: Espígol
kaszëbsczi: Lewańda
čeština: Levandule
Cymraeg: Lafant
dansk: Lavendel
Deutsch: Lavendel (Gattung)
Ελληνικά: Λεβάντα
English: Lavender
Esperanto: Lavendo
español: Lavanda
euskara: Labanda
فارسی: اسطوخودوس
suomi: Laventelit
français: Lavande
galego: Lavanda
עברית: אזוביון
hrvatski: Lavande
magyar: Levendula
հայերեն: Նարդոս
Bahasa, Indonesia: Lavender
Ido: Lavendo
íslenska: LofnarblóM
italiano: Lavanda
日本語: ラベンダー
Jawa: Lavender
ქართული: ლავანდი
қазақша: Ллаванда
한국어: 라벤더
Limburgs: Lavendel
lietuvių: Levanda
latviešu: Lavandas
македонски: Лаванда
Nederlands: Lavendel
norsk: Lavendelslekta
occitan: Lavanda
polski: Lawenda
português: Lavanda
română: Lavandula
русский: Лаванда
sicilianu: Lavanna
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lavande
Simple English: Lavender
slovenčina: LevanduľA
slovenščina: Sivka
svenska: Lavendelsläktet
ไทย: ลาเวนเดอร์
Türkçe: Lavanta
українська: Лаванда
粵語: 薰衣草
中文: 薰衣草

Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is native to the Old World and is found in Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, and from Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia to India.[2]

Many members of the genus are cultivated extensively in temperate climates as ornamental plants for garden and landscape use, for use as culinary herbs, and also commercially for the extraction of essential oils.[3] The most widely cultivated species, Lavandula angustifolia, is often referred to as lavender, and there is a color named for the shade of the flowers of this species. Lavender has been used over centuries in traditional medicine and cosmetics, and “limited clinical trials support therapeutic use of lavender for pain, hot flushes, and postnatal perineal discomfort.”[4][5]


The genus includes annual or short-lived herbaceous perennial plants, and shrub-like perennials, subshrubs or small shrubs.[6]

Leaf shape is diverse across the genus. They are simple in some commonly cultivated species; in other species, they are pinnately toothed, or pinnate, sometimes multiple pinnate and dissected. In most species the leaves are covered in fine hairs or indumentum, which normally contain the essential oils.[6]

Flowers are borne in whorls, held on spikes rising above the foliage, the spikes being branched in some species. Some species produce colored bracts at the tips of the inflorescences. The flowers may be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species, occasionally blackish purple or yellowish. The calyx is tubular. The corolla is also tubular, usually with five lobes (the upper lip often cleft, and the lower lip has two clefts).[6][7]

Nomenclature and taxonomy

Lavandula stoechas, L. pedunculata, and L. dentata were known in Roman times.[8] From the Middle Ages onwards, the European species were considered two separate groups or genera, Stoechas (L. stoechas, L. pedunculata, L. dentata) and Lavandula (L. spica and L. latifolia), until Linnaeus combined them. He only recognised five species in Species Plantarum (1753), L. multifida and L. dentata (Spain) and L. stoechas and L. spica from Southern Europe. L. pedunculata was included within L. stoechas.

By 1790, L. pinnata and L. carnosa were recognised. The latter was subsequently transferred to Anisochilus. By 1826 Frédéric Charles Jean Gingins de la Sarraz listed 12 species in three sections, and by 1848 eighteen species were known.[8]

One of the first modern major classifications was that of Dorothy Chaytor in 1937 at Kew. The six sections she proposed for 28 species still left many intermediates that could not easily be assigned. Her sections included Stoechas, Spica, Subnudae, Pterostoechas, Chaetostachys, and Dentatae. However all the major cultivated and commercial forms resided in the Stoechas and Spica sections. There were four species within Stoechas (Lavandula stoechas, L. dentata, L. viridis, and L. pedunculata) while Spica had three (L. officinalis (now L. angustifolia), L. latifolia and L. lanata). She believed that the garden varieties were hybrids between true lavender L. angustifolia and spike lavender (L. latifolia). [9]

Lavandula has three subgenera:

Subgenus Lavandula is mainly of woody shrubs with entire leaves. It contains the principal species grown as ornamental plants and for oils. They are found across the Mediterranean region to northeast Africa and western Arabia.
Subgenus Fabricia consists of shrubs and herbs, and it has a wide distribution from the Atlantic to India. It contains some ornamental plants.
Subgenus Sabaudia constitutes two species in the southwest Arabian peninsula and Eritrea, which are rather distinct from the other species, and are sometimes placed in their own genus Sabaudia.

In addition, there are numerous hybrids and cultivars in commercial and horticultural usage.[6]

The first major clade corresponds to subgenus Lavandula, and the second Fabricia. The Sabaudia group is less clearly defined. Within the Lavandula clade, the subclades correspond to the existing sections, but place Dentatae separately from Stoechas, not within it. Within the Fabricia clade, the subclades correspond to Pterostoechas, Subnudae, and Chaetostachys.

Thus the current classification includes 39 species distributed across 8 sections (the original 6 of Chaytor and the two new sections of Upson and Andrews), in three subgenera (see table below). However, since lavender cross-pollinates easily, countless variations present difficulties in classification.

The English word lavender is generally thought to be derived from Old French lavandre, ultimately from the Latin lavare (to wash), referring to the use of infusions of the plants.[10] The botanic name Lavandula as used by Linnaeus is considered to be derived from this and other European vernacular names for the plants. However it is suggested that this explanation may be apocryphal, and that the name may be derived from Latin livere, "blueish".[11]

The names widely used for some of the species, "English lavender", "French lavender" and "Spanish lavender" are all imprecisely applied. "English lavender" is commonly used for L. angustifolia, though some references say the proper term is "Old English Lavender".[12] The name "French lavender" may refer to either L. stoechas or to L. dentata. "Spanish lavender" may refer to L. stoechas, L. lanata or L. dentata.
A honey bee on a lavender flower

The most common form in cultivation is the common or English lavender Lavandula angustifolia (formerly named L. officinalis). A wide range of cultivars can be found. Other commonly grown ornamental species are L. stoechas, L. dentata, and L. multifida (Egyptian lavender).

Because the cultivated forms are planted in gardens worldwide, they are occasionally found growing wild as garden escapes, well beyond their natural range. Such spontaneous growth is usually harmless, but in some cases Lavandula species have become invasive. For example, in Australia, Lavandula stoechas has become a cause for concern; it occurs widely throughout the continent, and has been declared a noxious weed in Victoria since 1920.[13] It is regarded as a weed in parts of Spain.[14]

Lavenders flourish best in dry, well-drained, sandy or gravelly soils in full sun.[15] English Lavender has a long germination process (14–28 days) and matures within 100–110 days.[16] All types need little or no fertilizer and good air circulation. In areas of high humidity, root rot due to fungus infection can be a problem. Organic mulches can trap moisture around the plants' bases, encouraging root rot. Gravelly materials such as crushed rocks give better results.[17] It grows best in soils with a pH between 6 and 8.[18] Most lavender is hand-harvested, and harvest times vary depending on intended use.[18]
Lavender oil
"Lavandin" redirects here. For the racehorse, see Lavandin (horse).
Main article: Lavender oil

Commercially, the plant is grown mainly for the production of lavender essential oil of lavender. English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) yields an oil with sweet overtones, and can be used in balms, salves, perfumes, cosmetics, and topical applications.[4] Lavandula × intermedia, also known as lavandin or Dutch lavender, yields a similar essential oil, but with higher levels of terpenes including camphor, which add a sharper overtone to the fragrance.

The lavandins Lavandula × intermedia are a class of hybrids of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia.[19] The lavandins are widely cultivated for commercial use, since their flowers tend to be bigger than those of English lavender and the plants tend to be easier to harvest, but lavandin oil is regarded by some to be of a lower quality than that of English lavender, with a perfume less sweet.[20]

The US Food and Drug Administration considers lavender as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for human consumption.[21] The essential oil was used in hospitals during World War I.[15]

Some 100 individual phytochemicals have been extracted from lavender oil, including major contents of linalyl acetate (30-55%), linalool (20-35%), tannins (5-10%), and caryophyllene (8%), with lesser amounts of sesquiterpenoids, perillyl alcohols, esters, oxides, ketones, cineole, camphor, beta-ocimene, limonene, caproic acid, and caryophyllene oxide.[4][21][22] The relative amounts of these compounds vary considerably among lavender species.[4]
Culinary use
Lavender-flavored cupcakes

Culinary lavender is usually English lavender, the most commonly used species in cooking (L. angustifolia 'Munstead'). As an aromatic, it has a sweet fragrance with lemon or citrus notes.[23] It is used as a spice or condiment in pastas, salads and dressings, and desserts.[24][25] Their buds and greens are used in teas, and their buds, processed by bees, are the essential ingredient of monofloral honey.[26]
Use of buds

For most cooking applications the dried buds, which are also referred to as flowers, are used. Lavender greens have a more subtle flavor when compared to rosemary.[27]

The potency of the lavender flowers increases with drying which necessitates more sparing use to avoid a heavy, soapy aftertaste. Chefs note to reduce by two-thirds the dry amount in recipes which call for fresh lavender buds.[23][28][better source needed]

Lavender buds can amplify both sweet and savory flavors in dishes, and are sometimes paired with sheep's-milk and goat's-milk cheeses. Lavender flowers are occasionally blended with black, green, or herbal teas. Lavender flavors baked goods and desserts, pairing especially well with chocolate. In the United States, both lavender syrup and dried lavender buds are used to make lavender scones and marshmallows.[29][30]

Lavender buds are put into sugar for two weeks to allow the essential oils and fragrance to transfer; then the sugar itself is used in baking. Lavender can be used in breads where recipes call for rosemary. Lavender can be used decoratively in dishes or spirits, or as a decorative and aromatic in a glass of champagne. Lavender is used in savory dishes, giving stews and reduced sauces aromatic flair. It is also used to scent flans, custards, and sorbets.[23]
Use of greens

The greens are used similarly to rosemary or combined with rosemary to flavor meat and vegetables in savory dishes. They can also be used to make a tea that is milder than teas made with the flowers.[31]
In honey

The flowers yield abundant nectar, from which bees make a high-quality honey. Monofloral honey is produced primarily around the Mediterranean, and is marketed worldwide as a premium product. Flowers can be candied and are sometimes used as cake decorations. It is also used to make "lavender sugar".[26]
Other uses
Lavender products for sale at the San Francisco Farmers Market.

Flower spikes are used for dried flower arrangements. The fragrant, pale purple flowers and flower buds are used in potpourris. Lavender is also used as herbal filler inside sachets used to freshen linens. Dried and sealed in pouches, lavender flowers are placed among stored items of clothing to give a fresh fragrance and to deter moths.[32] Dried lavender flowers may be used for wedding confetti. Lavender is also used in scented waters and sachets.
In history and culture
See also: Spikenard

The ancient Greeks called the lavender herb νάρδος : nárdos, Latinized as nardus, after the Syrian city of Naarda (possibly the modern town of Dohuk, Iraq). It was also commonly called nard.[33] The species originally grown was L. stoechas.[6]

During Roman times, flowers were sold for 100 denarii per pound, which was about the same as a month's wages for a farm laborer, or fifty haircuts from the local barber. Its late Latin name was lavandārius, from lavanda (things to be washed), from the verb lavāre (to wash).[34]
Culinary history

Spanish nard (Old French: "spykenard de spayn le pays"), referring to L. stoechas, is listed as an ingredient in making a spiced wine, namely hippocras, in The Forme of Cury.[35]

Lavender was introduced into England in the 1600s. It is said that Queen Elizabeth prized a lavender conserve (jam) at her table, so lavender was produced as a jam at that time, as well as used in teas both medicinally and for its taste.[23]

Lavender was not used in traditional southern French cooking at the turn of the 20th century. It does not appear at all in the best-known compendium of Provençal cooking, J.-B. Reboul's Cuisinière Provençale.[36] French lambs have been allowed to graze on lavender as it is alleged to make their meat more tender and fragrant.[23] In the 1970s, a blend of herbs called herbes de Provence was invented by spice wholesalers. Culinary lavender is added to the mixture in the North American version.[37]

In the 21st century, lavender is used in many world regions to flavor tea, vinegar, jellies, baked goods, and beverages.[38]
Bunches of lavender for sale, intended to repel insects

Most preliminary clinical studies on the potential for lavender oil or other lavender plant components to affect human diseases have yet to confirm anti-disease or health effects as of 2018, largely due to the poor quality of study design and conduct.[4][5] Limited clinical trials support therapeutic use of lavender for pain, hot flushes, and postnatal perineal discomfort.

Lavender oil has been studied by preliminary research for its possible effect in alleviating anxiety and sleep disturbances,[39] but no conclusions about the effects on anxiety were possible.[40]

The German scientific committee on traditional medicine, Commission E, reported uses of lavender flower in practices of herbalism, including its use for restlessness or insomnia, Roehmheld's syndrome, intestinal discomfort, and cardiovascular diseases, among others.[41]
Health precautions

The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) states that lavender is considered likely safe in food amounts and may be safe for medicinal purposes such as anxiety.[5] NIH does not recommend the use of lavender while pregnant or breast-feeding because of lack of knowledge of its effects. It recommends caution if young boys use lavender oil because of possible hormonal effects leading to gynecomastia[42][43] caused by a genetic anomaly and tainted lavender via pesticides, and states that lavender oil may cause skin irritation and could be poisonous if consumed by mouth.[5]

A 2007 study examined the relationship between various fragrances and photosensitivity, stating that lavender is known "to elicit cutaneous photo-toxic reactions", but does not induce photohaemolysis.[44]
Adverse effects

Some people experience contact dermatitis, allergic eczema, or facial dermatitis from topical use of lavender oil on skin.[4][5]
Taxonomic table
Different lavender cultivars grown at Snowshill, Cotswolds.

This is based on the classification of Upson and Andrews, 2004.
Lavender field in Carshalton, London Borough of Sutton.
Field in Hitchin, England, UK

I. Subgenus Lavendula Upson & S.Andrews

i. Section Lavandula (3 species)

Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

subsp. angustifolia from Catalonia and the Pyrenees.
subsp. pyrenaica from southeast France and adjacent areas of Italy.

Lavandula latifolia Medik – native to central Portugal, central and eastern Spain, southern France, northern Italy.
Lavandula lanata Boiss. – native to southern Spain.


Lavandula × chaytorae Upson & S.Andrews (L. angustifolia subsp. angustifolia × L. lanata)
Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. (L. angustifolia subsp. angustifolia × L. latifolia)

ii. Section Dentatae Suarez-Cerv. & Seoane-Camba (1 species)

Lavandula dentata L. from eastern Spain, northern Algeria and Morocco, southwestern Morocco.

var. dentata (rosea, albiflora), candicans (persicina) [Batt.]

iii. Section Stoechas Ging. (3 species)

Lavandula stoechas L.

subsp. stoechas from mostly coastal regions of eastern Spain, southern France, western Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Mediterranean Turkey, Levantine coast, and most Mediterranean islands.
subsp. luisieri native to coastal and inland Portugal and adjacent Spain.

Lavandula pedunculata Mill.(Cav.)

subsp. pedunculata – Spain and Portugal.
subsp. cariensis – from western Turkey and southern Bulgaria.
subsp. atlantica – from montane Morocco.
subsp. lusitanica – southern Portugal and southwestern Spain.
subsp. sampaiana – from Portugal and southwest Spain.

Lavandula viridis L'Her. – native to southwest Spain, southern Portugal, and possibly also to Madeira.

Intersectional hybrids (Dentatae and Lavendula)

Lavandula × heterophylla Viv. (L. dentata × L. latifolia )
Lavandula × allardii
Lavandula × ginginsii Upson & S.Andrews (L. dentata × L. lanata )

II. Subgenus Fabricia (Adams.) Upson & S.Andrews

iv. Section Pterostoechas Ging. (16 species)

Lavandula multifida L. – is native to a wide range including Morocco, southern Portugal and Spain, northern Algeria, Tunisia, Tripolitania, Calabria and Sicily, with isolated populations in the Nile valley.
Lavandula canariensis Mill., from the Canaries.

subsp. palmensis – from La Palma.
subsp. hierrensis – from El Hierro.
subsp. canariensis – from Tenerife.
subsp. canariae – from Gran Canaria.
subsp. fuerteventurae – from Fuerteventura.
subsp. gomerensis – from La Gomera.
subsp. lancerottensis – from Lanzarote.

Lavandula minutolii Bolle – Canary Isles.

subsp. minutolii
subsp. tenuipinna

Lavandula bramwellii Upson & S.Andrews – from Gran Canaria.
Lavandula pinnata L. – from the Canaries and also Madeira.
Lavandula buchii Webb & Berthel. – Tenerife.
Lavandula rotundifolia Benth. – Cape Verde Islands.
Lavandula maroccana Murb. – Atlas mountains of Morocco.
Lavandula tenuisecta Coss. ex Ball – Atlas mountains in Morocco.
Lavandula rejdalii Upson & Jury – Morocco.
Lavandula mairei Humbert – Morocco.
Lavandula coronopifolia Poir. – This has a wide distribution, from Cape Verde across North Africa, the northeast of tropical Africa, Arabia to eastern Iran.
Lavandula saharica Upson & Jury – southern Algeria and nearby regions.
Lavandula antineae Maire – central Sahara region.

subsp. antinae
subsp. marrana
subsp. tibestica

Lavandula pubescens Decne. – from Egypt and Eritrea, Sinai, Israel and Palestine, Jordan, western Arabian peninsula to Yemen.
Lavandula citriodora A.G. Mill. – southwestern Arabian peninsula.


Lavandula × christiana Gattef. & Maire (L. pinnata × L. canariensis)

v. Section Subnudae Chaytor (10 species)

Lavandula subnuda Benth. – from the mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates.
Lavandula macra Baker – southern Arabian peninsula and Somaliland.
Lavandula dhofarensis A.G. Mill. – from Dhofar in southern Oman.

subsp. dhofarensis
subsp. ayunensis

Lavandula samhanensis Upson & S.Andrews – Dhofar, Oman.
Lavandula setifera T. Anderson – from coastal regions of Yemen and Somaliland.
Lavandula qishnensis Upson & S.Andrews – southern Yemen.
Lavandula nimmoi Benth. – from Socotra.
Lavandula galgalloensis A.G. Mill. – Somaliland.
Lavandula aristibracteata A.G. Mill. – Somaliland.
Lavandula somaliensis Chaytor – Somaliland.

vi. Section Chaetostachys Benth. (2 species)

Lavandula bipinnata (Roth) Kuntze – from the Deccan peninsula and central north India.
Lavandula gibsonii J. Graham – Western Ghats, India.

vii. Section Hasikenses Upson & S.Andrews (2 species)

Lavandula hasikensis A.G. Mill. – Oman.
Lavandula sublepidota Rech. f. – Far, in southern Iran.

III. Subgenus Sabaudia (Buscal. & Muschl.) Upson & S.Andrews

viii. Section Sabaudia (Buscal. & Muschl.) Upson & S.Andrews (2 species)

Lavandula atriplicifolia Benth. – western Arabian peninsula, Egypt.
Lavandula erythraeae (Chiov.) Cufod. – from Eritrea.


Lavender flower

Flower of cultivated lavender; Lavandula stoechas

Lavender garden, India

Lavandula fields near Drama


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The alternative derivation of the name lavender from Latin livere and medieval Latin lavindula is given in Upson and Andrews, where it is presented as a conjecture. The problems with the standard derivation are also described; such as that there is no knowledge of the common use of lavender for washing by Greeks and Romans.
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"Lavender". Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed), National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
Umezu, Toyoshi; Nagano, Kimiyo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Kosakai, Kiyomi; Sakaniwa, Misao; Morita, Masatoshi (1 December 2006). "Anticonflict effects of lavender oil and identification of its active constituents". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 85 (4): 713–721. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2006.10.026. PMID 17173962. S2CID 21779233.
Pasta With Shredded Vegetables and Lavender Recipe, New York Times, 08.27.2008
M. G. Kains (1912). American Agriculturist (ed.). Culinary Herbs: Their Cultivation Harvesting Curing and Uses (English). Orange Judd Company.
"Cooking with Lavender - Purple Haze Lavender (Sequim, WA)". Purple Haze Lavender.
"Cooking with Lavender?". Chowhound. June 24, 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
"Cooking With Lavender", Bon Appetit, March 27, 2015
Stradley, Linda (22 April 2015). "Lavender Scones, Whats Cooking America". What's Cooking America. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
Maclain, Ben (2 May 2015). "Lavender Marshmallows - Havoc In The Kitchen". Havoc In The Kitchen. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
"Lavender: 12 Uses Beyond Potpourri". living on a green thumb. October 7, 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
McCray, Carole. "Lavender - the loveliest of herbs". The Register-Guard. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
The origin of most of these quotes comes from Dr. William Thomas Fernie, in his book "Herbal Simples" (Bristol Pub., second edition, 1897), page 298:

'By the Greeks the name Nardus is given to Lavender, from Naarda, a city of Syria near the Euphrates, and many persons call the plant "Nard." St. Mark mentions this as Spikenard, a thing of great value. In Pliny's time, blossoms of the Nardus sold for a hundred Roman denarii (or L.3 2s. 6d.) the pound. This Lavender or Nardus was called Asarum by the Romans, because it was not used in garlands or chaplets. It was formerly believed that the asp, a dangerous kind of viper, made Lavender its habitual place of abode, so that the plant had to be approached with great caution.'

Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). 1989. "Note however that Upson and Andrews refer to research on bathing in the Roman Empire, and state that there is no mention of the use of lavender in works on this subject."
"The Forme of Cury". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 29 October 2020. "PUR FAIT YPOCRAS. XX.IX. XI. Treys Unces de canett. & iii unces de gyngeuer, spykenard de Spayn le pays dun denerer, garyngale, clowes, gylofre, poeurer long, noiez mugadez, maziozame cardemonij de chescun i quart' douce grayne & de paradys stour de queynel de chescun dim unce de toutes, soit fait powdour &c."
J.-B. Reboul; Cuisinière Provençale (1910)
Laget, F. (2005). "From its Birthplace in Egypt to Marseilles, an Ancient Trade: Drugs and Spices". Diogenes. 52 (3): 131–139. doi:10.1177/0392192105055941. S2CID 144212782.
Charles, Denys J. (2012), "Lavender", Antioxidant Properties of Spices, Herbs and Other Sources, New York, NY: Springer New York, p. 365, retrieved 2021-09-05
Kasper, S; Gastpar, M; Müller, WE; Volz, HP; Möller, HJ; Dienel, A; Schläfke, S (2010). "Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial". International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 25 (5): 277–87. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32833b3242. PMID 20512042. S2CID 46290020.
Perry, R; Terry, R; Watson, L. K.; Ernst, E (2012). "Is lavender an anxiolytic drug? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials". Phytomedicine. 19 (8–9): 825–35. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.02.013. PMID 22464012.
"Expanded Commission E monograph: Lavender flower". Integrative Medicine Communications, Germany; from the American Botanical Council. 2000. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
"Oils 'make male breasts develop'". British Broadcasting Corporation. February 2007. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
"More evidence essential oils 'make male breasts develop'". British Broadcasting Corporation. March 2018. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
Placzek, M; Frömel, W; Eberlein, B; Gilbertz, KP; Przybilla, B (2007). "Evaluation of phototoxic properties of fragrances". Acta Dermato-venereologica. 87 (4): 312–6. doi:10.2340/00015555-0251. PMID 17598033. "Also, oils of lemon, lavender, lime, sandalwood, and cedar are known to elicit cutaneous phototoxic reactions, but lavender, sandalwood, and cedar oil did not induce photohaemolysis in our assay...Lavender oil and sandalwood oil did not induce photohaemolysis in our test system. However, a few reports on photosensitivity reactions due to these substances have been published, e.g. one patient with persistent light reaction and a positive photo-patch test to sandalwood oil"

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