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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Millerieae
Subtribus: Melampodiinae
Genus: Melampodium
Species: M. americanum – M. appendiculatum – M. arenicola – M. argophyllum – M. aureum – M. bibracteatum – M. cinerascens – M. cinereum – M. cornutum – M. costaricense – M. cupulatum – M. dicoelocarpum – M. diffusum – M. divaricatum – M. elottianum – M. glabribracteatum – M. glabrum – M. gracile – M. leucanthum – M. linearilobum – M. longicorne – M. longifolium – M. longipes – M. longipilum – M. mayfieldii – M. microcephalum – M. mimulifolium – M. moctezumum – M. montanum – M. nayaritense – M. northingtonii – M. nutans – M. paniculatum – M. parvulum – M. perfoliatum – M. pilosum – M. pringlei – M. repens – M. rosei – M. sericeum – M. sinaloense – M. sinuatum – M. strigosum – M. tenellum – M. tepicense
Name

Melampodium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 921. (1753)

Type species: Melampodium americanum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 921. (1753)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 921.
Hassler, M. 2018. Melampodium. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jan. 29. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Melampodium. Published online. Accessed: Jan. 29 2018.
Tropicos.org 2018. Melampodium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jan. 29.

Vernacular names
English: Blackfoot
русский: Меламподиум

Melampodium is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family.[4][5]

These are rugged plants native to the tropical to subtropical regions that include Central America, Southwestern United States, California, Florida, the Caribbean, and South America. Most of the species can be found in Mexico, five in the Southwestern United States, and three are scattered in Colombia and Brazil.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Some sources say that the name Melampodium is derived from the Greek words μέλας (melas), meaning "black", and πόδιον (podion), meaning "foot". This refers to the color of the base of the stem and roots.[13] Members of the genus are commonly known as blackfoots.[14] Other authorities, however, maintain that this is in error, that the name comes from Melampus, a soothsayer of renown in Greek mythology.[6]

The genus consists of annuals and perennials or bushy plants, growing to a height of 1 m. When fully grown, they tend to fall over. They like average, well-drained soil, but can equally grow on rocky soil in deserts. They are moderately to highly drought- and heat-tolerant. Three species of the so-called white-rayed complex are xerophytic.[6]

The foliage varies from bright green to grey-green. The opposite leaves are narrow and about 2–5 cm long.[6]

The terminal flower heads are about 2.5 cm wide. They give a continuous display of white (only in the three species of the white-rayed complex), cream, or yellow daisylike ray florets, surrounding a darker orange center with the disc florets. These eight to 10 broad disc florets are functionally staminate. The five outer bracts are partially joined for about half their length.[6]

The numerous fruits are seed-like (they consist of inner involucral bracts each enclosing and fused with individual ray achenes), with a few narrow scales at their tip. They make this genus one of the most prolific of the summer annuals, with seedlings coming up constantly.[6]

The genus displays a large number of haploid chromosome numbers are based on 4 basic chromosome numbers (x = 9, 10, 11, 12).

Several cultivars of Melampodium leucanthum have been developed, such as 'Million Gold' and 'Showstar', mostly to achieve a more compact size.

Note: Melampodium has been labelled Sanvitalia speciosa in the horticultural trade, but this is an invalid name.[15]
Species
Plains Blackfoot (Melampodium leucanthum) (1913 illustration from Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 3: 459.
Flowers and buds of Melampodium divaricatum.

Species[2][14][16][17]

Melampodium americanum - Guatemala, El Salvador, Mexico (from Tamaulipas to Chiapas)[18][19][20]
Melampodium appendiculatum - Chihuahua, Sonora, Nayarit, Arizona
Melampodium argophyllum - Coahuila, Nuevo León
Melampodium aureum - Puebla, Oaxaca
Melampodium bibractatum - Durango, State of Mexico, Guatemala
Melampodium cinereum - Coahuila, Nuevo León, Texas, Missouri
Melampodium costaricense - Costa Rica, Panama, Belize, Nicaragua, Colombia
Melampodium cupulatum - Sonora, Sinaloa, Jalisco, Baja California Sur
Melampodium diffusum - Oaxaca, Philippines (probably introduced)
Melampodium divaricatum - Brazil, Bolivia, West Indies, Venezuela, Colombia, Central America, Mexico, United States (FL AL LA AR)
Melampodium glabribracteatum - Oaxaca
Melampodium glabrum - Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacán
Melampodium gracile - Guatemala, El Salvador, Belize, Mexico (from Tamaulipas to Chiapas)
Melampodium leucanthum - Chihuahua, USA (TX NM AZ OK KS CO)
Melampodium linearilobum - Mexico, Central America
Melampodium longicorne - Sonora, Arizona, New Mexico
Melampodium longifolium - Mexico
Melampodium longipes - Jalisco
Melampodium longipilum - from Guatemala to San Luis Potosí
Melampodium mayfieldii - Jalisco
Melampodium microcephalum - from Guatemala to Jalisco
Melampodium mimulifolium - Oaxaca
Melampodium montanum - from Guatemala to Jalisco + San Luis Potosí
Melampodium nayaritense - Durango, Nayarit
Melampodium northingtonii - Oaxaca
Melampodium nutans - Oaxaca, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán
Melampodium paniculatum - from Oaxaca to Brazil
Melampodium percussum
Melampodium perfoliatum - Mexico, Central America, Cuba, California
Melampodium pilosum - Guerrero, Michoacan
Melampodium pringlei - Oaxaca, Puebla
Melampodium repens - Veracruz
Melampodium rosei - Sinaloa, Jalisco, Nayarit
Melampodium sericeum - Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador
Melampodium sinaloense - Sinaloa
Melampodium sinuatum - Baja California Sur
Melampodium strigosum - Chihuahua, Durango, D.F., Mexico State, Hidalgo, United States (AZ NM TX CO)
Melampodium tenellum - Nayarit
Melampodium tepicense - Nayarit, Jalisco

Formerly placed here

Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze (as M. australe Loefl.)
Acanthospermum humile (Sw.) DC. (as M. humile Sw.)
Eleutheranthera ruderalis (Sw.) Sch.Bip. (as M. ruderale Sw.)[16]

References

"Genus Melampodium". Taxonomy. UniProt. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
"Global Compositae Checklist". archive.is. 24 November 2014. Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
"Genus: Melampodium L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1996-09-17. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 921 in Latin
Tropicos, Melampodium L.
Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 34 Melampodium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 921. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 392. 1754.
Turner, B.L. and R.M. King. 1962. A cytotaxonomic survey of Melampodium (Compositae-Heliantheae) Am. J. Bot. 49:263-269.
Stuessy, T. F. 1979. - Cladistics of Melampodium (Compositae). Taxon 28: 179-195.
Crisci, J.V. & T.F. Stuessy. 1981. Un estudio taxonomico-numerico del genero Melampodium (Compositae, Heliantheae). XVIII Jornadas Argentinas de Botanica. San Miguel de Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina, 4/7-V-1981. Abstract, pp. 53–54.
Stuessy, T.F. & J.V. Crisci. 1983. Phenetics of Melampodium (Compositae, Heliantheae). The Ohio Academy of Science, 92nd Annual Meeting Bowling Green State University. Ohio, USA, 22/24-IV-1983.
Bohm, B.A., and Stuessy, T.F. 1992. Flavonoid variation in Melampodium (Asteraceae). Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 19: 677-679.
Seaman Fred C. - Fischer Nikolaus H. - Longipin, a new Melampolide from Melampodium longipes,1979
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. Vol. III: M-Q. CRC Press. p. 1647. ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6.
"Melampodium". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
UHER, J.: Sanvitalia speciosa in the horticultural trade: unknown origin, uncertain identity but no Sanvitalia. Acta univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2012, LX, No. 6, pp. 339–342[permanent dead link]
"GRIN Species Records of Melampodium". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
"2013 BONAP North American Plant Atlas. TaxonMaps". bonap.net. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
Strother, J. L. 1999. Compositae–Heliantheae s. l. 5: 1–232. In D.E. Breedlove (ed.) Flora of Chiapas. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco
Nash, D. L. 1976. Tribe V, Heliantheae. En: Nash, D.L. & Williams, L.O. (Eds), Flora of Guatemala - Part XII. Fieldiana, Botany 24(12): 181–361, 503–570
Berendsohn, W.G. & A.E. Araniva de González. 1989. Listado básico de la Flora Salvadorensis: Dicotyledonae, Sympetalae (pro parte): Labiatae, Bignoniaceae, Acanthaceae, Pedaliaceae, Martyniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Compositae. Cuscatlania 1(3): 290–1–290–13

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