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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Rubioideae
Tribus: Morindeae
Genus: Morinda
Species: M. angolensis – M. angustifolia – M. asteroscepa – M. bracteata – M. buchii – M. carnosa – M. chrysorhiza – M. citrifolia – M. coreia – M. corneri – M. fasciculata – M. hoffmannioides – M. hypotephra – M. intermedia – M. latibractea – M. leiantha – M. longiflora – M. longifolia – M. longipetiolata – M. longissima – M. lucida – M. mayorii – M. mefou – M. moaensis – M. morindoides – M. multinervis – M. nana – M. pacifica – M. panamensis – M. pandurifolia – M. pedunculata – M. persicifolia – M. piperiformis – M. pumila – M. ramosa – M. rosiflora – M. royoc – M. scabrida – M. schultzei – M. sessiliflora – M. titanophylla – M. turbacensis – M. undulata


Morinda L., Sp. Pl. 1: 176 (1753)

Type species: Morinda royoc L., Sp. Pl. 1: 176 (1753)


Rojoc Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 146. (1763)
Appunettia R.D.Good, J. Bot. 64(Suppl. 2): 20. (1926)
Sarcopygme Setch. & Christoph., Occas. Pap. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Mus. 11(5): 4 (1935)
Belicea Lundell, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 8: 86. (1942)

Native distribution areas:

West Tropical Africa
Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierre Leone, Togo
West-Central Tropical Africa
Cabinda, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Islands, Zaïre
Northeast Tropical Africa
East Tropical Africa
Tanzania, Uganda
South Tropical Africa
Angola, Malawi, Zambia
China South-Central, Hainan, China Southeast
Eastern Asia
Kazan-retto, Nansei-shoto, Ogasawara-shoto, Taiwan
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Laccadive Islands, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka
Andaman Islands, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, South China Sea, Thailand, Vietnam
Borneo, Cocos Islands, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Christmas Isle
Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia
Southwestern Pacific
Samoa, Santa Cruz Islands
Northwestern Pacific
Caroline Islands
Northern America
Southeastern U.S.A.
Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast
Southern America
Central America
Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Aruba, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Southwest Caribbean, Windward Islands,
Northern South America
Western South America
Colombia, Ecuador.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 176.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Morinda in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2011 Apr 16.
Razafimandimbison, S.G., McDowell, T.D., Halford, D.A. & Bremer B. 2009. Molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the tribe Morindeae (Rubiaceae–Rubioideae): how to circumscribe Morinda L. to be monophyletic? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 879–886. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.007 PDF Reference page.
Razafimandimbison, S.G. & Bremer, B. 2011. Nomenclatural changes and taxonomic notes in the tribe Morindeae (Rubiaceae). Adansonia 33(2): 283-309. DOI: 10.5252/a2011n2a13 PDF Reference page.
Taylor, C.M. & Lorence, D.H., 2010. Rubiacearum americanarum magna hama pars XXII: Notable new species of South American Coutarea, Morinda, Patima, and Rosenbergiodendron. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 20(1): 95-105. JSTOR Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Morinda in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2 September 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Morinda in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Dec. 23. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Morinda. Published online. Accessed: 2 September 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Morinda in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 September 2. 2018. Morinda. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 September 2.

Vernacular names

বাংলা: মোরিন্দা
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মোরিন্দা
suomi: Nonit
перем коми: Моринда
коми: Моринда
മലയാളം: മൊറിൻഡ
кырык мары: Моринда
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရဲယိုပင်
नेपाल भाषा: मोरिन्दा
தமிழ்: நுணா (பேரினம்)
ไทย: สกุลยอ
удмурт: Моринда

Morinda is a genus of flowering plants in the madder family, Rubiaceae.[1] The generic name is derived from the Latin words morus "mulberry", from the appearance of the fruits, and indica, meaning "of India".[2]


Distributed in all tropical regions of the world, Morinda includes 80 species of trees, shrubs or vines. All Morinda species bear aggregate or multiple fruits that can be fleshy (like Morinda citrifolia) or dry.[3] Most species of this genus originate in the area of Borneo, New Guinea, Northern Australia and New Caledonia.

In traditional Japanese, Korean and Chinese medicine, Morinda citrifolia is considered to be a herb with biological properties, although there is no confirmed evidence of clinical efficacy.[4]
Fossil record

The first fossil record for genus Morinda is from fruit of Morinda chinensis found in coal dated from the Eocene 56 to 33.9 million years ago in the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island, South China.[5]
Selected species

Morinda angustifolia Roxb.
Morinda asperula Standl.
Morinda asteroscepa K.Schum. (Malawi, Tanzania)
Morinda citrifolia L. – Noni, great morinda, aal (Indian Ocean)
Morinda citrifolia var. bracteata (Roxb.) Hook.f.
Morinda citrifolia var. citrifolia L.
Morinda fasciculata Benth. (Ecuador)
Morinda jasminoides A.Cunn. – Sweet morinda (Eastern Australia)
Morinda longiflora G.Don
Morinda lucida Benth.
Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh.

Morinda nana Craib
Morinda officinalis F.C.How (China)
Morinda persicifolia Buch.-Ham.
Morinda panamensis Seem.
Morinda parvifolia Bartl. ex DC.
Morinda pubescens Sm.
Morinda royoc L.
Morinda tinctoria Roxb.
Morinda trimera Hillebr. – Noni kuahiwi[6] (Hawaii)
Morinda umbellata L.
Morinda yucatanensis Greenm.[7]

Plants in the former genus Appunettia are now considered synonymous with Morinda.
Formerly placed here

Psychotria muscosa (Jacq.) Steyerm. (as Morinda muscosa Jacq.)[7]


"Genus: Morinda L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1996-09-17. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. III: M-Q. CRC Press. p. 1730. ISBN 978-0-8493-2677-6.
Sambamurty, A.V.S.S. (2005). Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 404. ISBN 978-81-88237-16-6.
Potterat O, Hamburger M. (2007). "Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit--phytochemistry, pharmacology, safety". Planta Med. 73 (3): 191–9. doi:10.1055/s-2007-967115. PMID 17286240.
Xianggang Shi, Jianhua Jin, Chuangxing Ye, Weiqiu Liu (2012). "First fruit fossil record of Morinda (Rubiaceae) from China". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 179 (1 July): 13–16. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2012.04.001.
"Morinda". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
"GRIN Species Records of Morinda". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved 2010-11-28.

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