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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Faboideae
Tribus: Sophoreae
Genus: Ormosia
Species: O. altimontana – O. amazonica – O. antioquensis – O. apiculata – O. arborea – O. assamica – O. bahiensis – O. balansae – O. bancana – O. bolivarensis – O. bopiensis – O. calavensis – O. cambodiana – O. carinata – O. chevalieri – O. cinerea – O. coarctata – O. coccinea – O. colombiana – O. costulata – O. coutinhoi – O. crassivalvis – O. cruenta – O. cuatrecasasii – O. discolor – O. elata – O. elliptica – O. emarginata – O. eugeniifolia – O. excelsa – O. fastigiata – O. ferruginea – O. flava – O. fordiana – O. formosana – O. friburgensis – O. froesii – O. glaberrima – O. glauca – O. gracilis – O. grandiflora – O. grandistipulata – O. grossa – O. hekouensis – O. hengchuniana – O. henryi – O. hoaensis – O. holerythra – O. hosiei – O. howii – O. indurata – O. inflata – O. intermedia – O. isthmensis – O. jamaicensis – O. krugii – O. laosensis – O. larecajana – O. laxa – O. lewisii – O. lignivalvis – O. limae – O. longipes – O. macrocalyx – O. macrodisca – O. macrophylla – O. maguireorum – O. mataridek – O. mekongensis – O. melanocarpa – O. merrilliana – O. microphylla – O. minor – O. monosperma – O. nanningensis – O. napoensis – O. nitida – O. nobilis – O. nuda – O. oaxacana – O. olivacea – O. ormondii – O. pachycarpa – O. pachyptera – O. panamensis – O. paniculata – O. paraensis – O. penangensis – O. peruviana – O. pingbianensis – O. pinnata – O. poilanei – O. polita – O. pubescens – O. purpureiflora – O. revoluta – O. robusta – O. ruddiana – O. santaremnensis – O. saxatilis – O. scandens – O. schunkei – O. semicastrata – O. sericeolucida – O. simplicifolia – O. smithii – O. solimoesensis – O. steyermarkii – O. stipulacea – O. stipularis – O. striata – O. subsessilis – O. subsimplex – O. sumatrana – O. surigaensis – O. tavoyana – O. timboensis – O. tonkinensis – O. tovarensis – O. travancorica – O. trifoliolata – O. tsangii – O. velutina – O. venezolana – O. venosa – O. vicosana – O. watsonii – O. williamsii – O. xylocarpa – O. yunnanensis
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Ormosia (Fabaceae) in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun!02 {{{3}}}. Reference page.


Ormosia Jacks., 1811

Type species: Robinia coccinea Aubl.


Arillaria Kurz, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 42: (1873) II. 70
Chaenolobium Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. 1: 302 (1860)
Fedorovia Yakovlev, Bot. Zhurn., 56(5): 656 (1971)
Layia Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beech. Voy. 183, t. 38 (1833)
Macrotropis DC., Prod. 2: 98 (1825)
Macroule Pierce, Trop. Woods, No. 71, 2 (1942)
Ormosiopsis Ducke, Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro, 4: 61 (1925)
Placolobium Miq., Fl. Ned.-Ind. 1: I. 1082 (1857)
Podopetalum F.Muell., Melb. Chemist (1882)
Ruddia Yakovlev, Bot. Zhurn. 56(5): 654 (1971)
Toulichiba Adans., Fam. 2: 326 (1763)
Trichocyamos Yakovlev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast., 9: 200 (1972)

Native distribution areas:
Ormosia (Fabaceae)

Continental: Tropical & Subtropical Asia, S. Mexico to Tropical America
Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Jawa, Laos, Leeward Is., Malaya, Maluku, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Jackson, G., 1811. Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 360


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Ormosia (Fabaceae) in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun!02 Ormosia. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Ormosia. Published online. Accessed: Jun 02 2021. 2021. Ormosia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 02.
Hassler, M. 2021. Ormosia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 02. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. (Ormosia). Ormosia (Fabaceae). Accessed: 02 Jun 2021.

Vernacular names
русский: Ормозия
Tiếng Việt: Chi Ràng ràng
中文: 红豆属

Ormosia is a genus of legumes (family Fabaceae). The more than 100 living species, mostly trees or large shrubs, are distributed throughout the tropical regions of the world, some extending into temperate zones, especially in East Asia. A few species are threatened by habitat destruction, while the Hainan Ormosia (Ormosia howii) is probably extinct already.

Plants in this genus are commonly known as horse-eye beans or simply ormosias, and in Spanish by the somewhat ambiguous term "chocho". The scientific name Ormosia is a nomen conservandum, overruling Toulichiba which is formally rejected under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.[2]

The seeds of these plants are poisonous if eaten, but often look pretty, with bright colors and decorative patterns reminiscent of an eye; the common name "horse-eye beans" refers to these seeds. They resemble the seeds of Abrus, snoutbeans (Rhynchosia), and Adenanthera, but are much larger than the former two. In particular those of Ormosia coccinea are often used for jewelry and other decorative purposes, or as good luck charms. The seeds float and are occasionally found as "sea beans".

Otherwise, Ormosia wood is used as timber or firewood. Some species, for example Ormosia nobilis, are also used in folk medicine.[3]

Fossil record

8 dehiscent seed pod fossils of one Ormosia species from the middle Eocene epoch have been examined from Warman clay pit in Weakley County, while 52 fossil leaflets of two Ormosia species have been described from Warman, New Lawrence and Lamkin clay pits in Weakley and Henry Counties, Tennessee, United States.[4]

Ormosia comprises the following species:[5][6][7]

Ormosia altimontana Meireles & H.C. Lima[8]
Ormosia amazonica Ducke
Ormosia antioquensis Rudd
Ormosia apiculata L. Chen
Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms
Ormosia assamica Yakovlev
Ormosia avilensis Pittier
Ormosia bahiensis Monach.
Ormosia balansae Drake
Ormosia bancana (Miq.) Merr.
Ormosia bolivarensis (Rudd) C.H. Stirt.
Ormosia boluoensis Y.Q. Wang & P.Y. Chen
Ormosia bopiensis J.F. Macbr.
Ormosia calavensis Blanco
Ormosia cambodiana Gagnep.
Ormosia chevalieri Niyomdham
Ormosia cinerea Benoist
Ormosia coarctata Jacks.
Ormosia coccinea (Aubl.) Jacks.
var. coccinea (Aubl.) Jacks.
var. subsimplex (Benth.) Rudd
Ormosia colombiana Rudd
Ormosia costulata (Miq.) Kleinhoonte
Ormosia coutinhoi Ducke—Red Horse-eye Bean
Ormosia crassivalvis Gagnep.
Ormosia cruenta Rudd
Ormosia cuatrecasasii Rudd
Ormosia discolor Benth.
Ormosia elata Rudd
Ormosia elliptica Q.W. Yao & R.H. Chang
Ormosia emarginata (Hook. & Arn.) Benth.
Ormosia eugeniifolia R.H. Chang
Ormosia excelsa Benth.
Ormosia fastigiata Tul.
Ormosia ferruginea R.H. Chang
Ormosia flava (Ducke) Rudd
Ormosia fordiana Oliv.
Ormosia formosana Kaneh.
Ormosia friburgensis Glaz.
Ormosia froesii Rudd
Ormosia glaberrima Y.C. Wu
Ormosia glauca Wall.
Ormosia gracilis Prain
Ormosia grandiflora (Tul.) Rudd
Ormosia grandistipulata Whitmore
Ormosia grossa Rudd
Ormosia hekouensis R.H. Chang
Ormosia hengchuniana T.C. Huang, S.F. Huang & K.C. Yang
Ormosia henryi Prain
Ormosia hoaensis Gagnep.
Ormosia holerythra Ducke
Ormosia hosiei Hemsl. & E.H. Wilson
Ormosia howii L. Chen—Hainan Ormosia (probably extinct)
Ormosia indurata L. Chen
Ormosia inflata Merr. & L. Chen
Ormosia intermedia N. Zamora
Ormosia isthmensis Standl.
Ormosia jamaicensis Urb.
Ormosia kerrii Niyomdham
Ormosia krugii Urb.
Ormosia laosensis Niyomdham
Ormosia larecajana Rudd
Ormosia lewisii D.B.O.S.Cardoso et al.[9]
Ormosia lignivalvis Rudd
Ormosia limae D.B.O.S.Cardoso & L.P.Queiroz[10]
Ormosia longipes L. Chen
Ormosia macrocalyx Ducke
Ormosia macrodisca Baker
Ormosia macrophylla Benth.
Ormosia maguireorum Rudd
Ormosia mataridek Aymard & Sanoja[11]
Ormosia melanocarpa Kleinhoonte
Ormosia microphylla Merr. & L. Chen
Ormosia minor Vogel
Ormosia monosperma (Sw.) Urb.
Ormosia nanningensis L. Chen
Ormosia napoensis Z. Wei & R.H. Chang
Ormosia nitida Vogel
Ormosia nobilis Tul.
var. nobilis Tul.
var. santaremnensis (Ducke) Rudd
Ormosia nuda (F.C. How) R.H. Chang & Q.W. Yao
Ormosia oaxacana Rudd
Ormosia olivacea L. Chen
Ormosia ormondii (F. Muell.) Merr.
Ormosia pachycarpa Benth.—Hairy-fruited Ormosia
Ormosia pachyptera L. Chen
Ormosia panamensis Benth.—coronil, sur espino
Ormosia paniculata Merr.
Ormosia paraensis Ducke
Ormosia penangensis Ridl.
Ormosia peruviana Rudd
Ormosia pingbianensis W.C. Cheng & R.H. Chang
Ormosia pinnata (Lour.) Merr.
Ormosia poilanei Niyomdham
Ormosia polita Prain
Ormosia pubescens R.H. Chang
Ormosia purpureiflora L. Chen
Ormosia revoluta Rudd
Ormosia robusta Baker
Ormosia ruddiana Yakovlev
Ormosia saxatilis K.M. Lan
Ormosia scandens Prain
Ormosia schippii Standl. & Steyerm.
Ormosia schunkei Rudd
Ormosia semicastrata Hance
f. litchifolia F. C. How
f. pallida F. C. How
f. semicastrata Hance
Ormosia sericeolucida L. Chen
Ormosia simplicifolia Merr. & L. Chen
Ormosia smithii Rudd
Ormosia solimoesensis Rudd
Ormosia steyermarkii Rudd
Ormosia stipulacea Meeuwen
Ormosia stipularis Ducke
Ormosia striata Dunn
Ormosia sumatrana (Miq.) Prain
Ormosia surigaensis Merr.
Ormosia tavoyana Prain
Ormosia timboënsis D. Cardoso, Meireles & H.C. Lima[12]
Ormosia tonkinensis Gagnep.
Ormosia tovarensis Pittier
Ormosia travancorica Bedd.
Ormosia trifoliolata Huber[9]
Ormosia tsangii L. Chen
Ormosia velutina Rudd
Ormosia venezolana Rudd
Ormosia venosa Baker
Ormosia vicosana Rudd
Ormosia williamsii Rudd
Ormosia xylocarpa Merr. & L. Chen
Ormosia zahnii Harms

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status

The status of the following species is unresolved:[7]

Ormosia apiculata H.Y. Chen
Ormosia carinata N.Zamora
Ormosia clementis Merr.
Ormosia dubia Prain
Ormosia esquirolii H.Lév.
Ormosia floribunda Wall.
Ormosia friburgensis Taub. ex Harms
Ormosia galericulata C.H. Stirt.
Ormosia howii Merr. & Chun
Ormosia indurata H.Y. Chen
Ormosia inflata Merr. & Chun
Ormosia longipes H.Y. Chen
Ormosia microphylla Merr.
Ormosia monophylla (Harms) Stapf
Ormosia nanningensis H.Y. Chen
Ormosia olivacea H.Y. Chen
Ormosia pachyptera H.Y. Chen
Ormosia panamensis Benth. ex Seem.
Ormosia pingbianensis M. Cheng & R.H. Chang
Ormosia purpureiflora H.Y. Chen
Ormosia ridleyi King
Ormosia sericeolucida H.Y. Chen
Ormosia simplicifolia Merr. & Chun
Ormosia vagraja C.H. Stirt.
Ormosia xylocarpa Chun ex Merr. & H.Y. Chen
Placolobium ellipticum N.D. Khoi & Yakovlev[13]
Placolobium vietnamense N.D. Khoi & Yakovlev[13]
Placolobium watsonii (C. Fischer) Yakovlev[13]


Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk BE, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". South African Journal of Botany. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.
USDA; ARS; National Genetic Resources Program (5 Oct 2007). "GRIN record for genus Ormosia". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 24 Dec 2008.
Marín-Corba C, Cárdenas-López D, Suárez-Suárez S (2005). "Utilidad del valor de uso en etnobotánica. Estudio en el departamento de Putumayo (Colombia)" [Use Value usefulness in ethnobotany. Case study in Putumayo department (Colombia)] (PDF). Caldasia. 27 (1): 89–101.
The Fossil History of Leguminosae from the Eocene of Southeastern North America by Patrick S. Herendeen, Advances in Legume Systematics: Part 4, The Fossil Record, Ed. P.S. Herendeen & Dilcher, 1992, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, ISBN 0 947643 40 0
"ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Ormosia". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
USDA; ARS; National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Ormosia". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
"The Plant List entry for Ormosia". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
Meireles JE, de Lima HC (2013). "A new species of Ormosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest". Phytotaxa. 143 (1): 54–60. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.143.1.3.
Cardoso DBOS; Stirton CH; Torke BM (2014). "Taxonomy of South American Ormosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae): Recircumscription of O. costulata, reinstatement of O. trifoliolata, and the new species O. lewisii from the Brazilian Atlantic forest". Systematic Botany. 39 (4): 1132–1141. doi:10.1600/036364414X683903. S2CID 85732454.
Cardoso DBOS; de Queiroz LP (2010). "Ormosia limae (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae): A New Species from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil". Systematic Botany. 35 (2): 272–276. doi:10.1600/036364410791638441.
Aymard GA, Sanoja E (2012). "A New Species of Ormosia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, Sophoreae) from the Guayana Shield, Bolivar State, Venezuela". Harvard Papers in Botany. 17 (2): 275–279. doi:10.3100/025.017.0206. S2CID 84187878.
Cardoso DBOS; Meireles JE; de Lima HC (2009). "A remarkable new species of Ormosia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae) from Bahian Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil". Brittonia. 61 (1): 22–27. doi:10.1007/s12228-008-9051-y. S2CID 38734607.
These three are accepted species, but have yet to be formally transferred to Ormosia.

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