Fine Art

Petroselinum crispum

Petroselinum crispum

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Apiales

Familia: Apiaceae
Subfamilia: Apioideae
Tribus: Apieae
Genus: Petroselinum
Species: Petroselinum crispum
Varieties: P. c. var. crispum – P. c. var. neapolitanum – P. c. var. tuberosum

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss

Hand-list of Herbaceous plants ed. 3, 122. 1925
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Petroselinum crispum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
العربية: بقدونس
български: Магданоз
català: Julivert
čeština: Petržel
dansk: Persille
Deutsch: Petersilie, Silk
Ελληνικά: Μαϊντανός
English: Parsley
Esperanto: Petroselo
español: Perejil
eesti: Aedpetersell
suomi: Persilja
Nordfriisk: Pitersile
français: Persil
galego: Perexil
עברית: פטרוזיליה
italiano: Prezzemolo, Petrosello
日本語: パセリ
lietuvių: Petražolė
македонски: Магдонос
Napulitano: Petrusino
Nederlands: Peterselie
norsk nynorsk: Persille
norsk: Persille
Deitsch: Pederli
polski: Pietruszka zwyczajna
português: salsa
Runa Simi: Qhurita
română: Pătrunjel
русский: Петрушка кудрявая
slovenščina: Navadni peteršilj
српски / srpski: Першун
svenska: Persilja
Türkçe: Maydanoz
українська: Петрушка
Tiếng Việt: Mùi tây
West-Vlams: Perselle
中文: 香芹

Parsley, or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae that is native to the central and eastern Mediterranean region (Sardinia, Lebanon, Israel, Cyprus, Turkey, southern Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Malta, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), but has been naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and is widely cultivated as a herb, and a vegetable.

Parsley is widely used in European, Middle Eastern, and American cuisine. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. In central Europe, eastern Europe, and southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Flat leaf parsley is similar, but it is easier to cultivate, some say it has a stronger flavor. Root parsley is very common in central, eastern, and southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles. It is believed to have been originally grown in Sardinia (Mediterranean area) and was cultivated in around the 3rd century BC. Linnaeus stated its wild habitat to be Sardinia, whence it was brought to England and apparently first cultivated in Britain in 1548.[2]
Freeze-dried parsley showing name in German, Spanish and Greek on the label

The word "parsley" is a merger of Old English petersilie (which is identical to the contemporary German word for parsley: Petersilie) and the Old French peresil, both derived from Medieval Latin petrosilium, from Latin petroselinum,[3] which is the latinization of the Greek πετροσέλινον (petroselinon), "rock-celery",[4] from πέτρα (petra), "rock, stone",[5] + σέλινον (selinon), "celery".[6][7][8] Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, in Linear B, is the earliest attested form of the word selinon.[9]
Parsley leaves

Garden parsley is a bright green, biennial plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas.

Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm (30 in) tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers. The seeds are ovoid, 2–3 mm long, with prominent style remnants at the apex. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. The plant normally dies after seed maturation.[8][10][11]
Nutritional content

Parsley, fresh
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 151 kJ (36 kcal)
6.33 g
Sugars 0.85 g
Dietary fiber 3.3 g
0.79 g
2.97 g
Vitamins Quantity
Vitamin A equiv.
lutein zeaxanthin
421 μg
5054 μg
5561 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.086 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.09 mg
Niacin (B3)
1.313 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.4 mg
Vitamin B6
0.09 mg
Folate (B9)
152 μg
Vitamin C
133 mg
Vitamin E
0.75 mg
Vitamin K
1640 μg
Minerals Quantity
138 mg
6.2 mg
50 mg
0.16 mg
58 mg
554 mg
56 mg
1.07 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Parsley is a source of flavonoids and antioxidants, especially luteolin, apigenin,[12] folate, vitamin K, vitamin C, and vitamin A. Half a tablespoon (a gram) of dried parsley contains about 6.0 µg of lycopene and 10.7 µg of alpha carotene as well as 82.9 µg of lutein+zeaxanthin and 80.7 µg of beta carotene.[13] Dried parsley can contain about 45 mg/gram apigenin.[14] The apigenin content of fresh parsley is reportedly 215.5 mg/100 grams, which is much higher than the next highest food source, green celery hearts providing 19.1 mg/100 grams.[15]

Excessive consumption of parsley should be avoided by pregnant women. Normal food quantities are safe for pregnant women, but consuming excessively large amounts may have uterotonic effects.[16]

Parsley grows best in moist, well-drained soil, with full sun. It grows best between 22–30 °C (72–86 °F), and usually is grown from seed.[11] Germination is slow, taking four to six weeks,[11] and it often is difficult because of furanocoumarins in its seed coat.[17] Typically, plants grown for the leaf crop are spaced 10 cm apart, while those grown as a root crop are spaced 20 cm apart to allow for the root development.[11]

Parsley attracts several species of wildlife. Some swallowtail butterflies use parsley as a host plant for their larvae; their caterpillars are black and green striped with yellow dots, and will feed on parsley for two weeks before turning into butterflies. Bees and other nectar-feeding insects also visit the flowers. Birds such as the goldfinch feed on the seeds.
Curled parsley
Plant seen from above, Crispum Group

In cultivation, parsley is subdivided into several cultivar groups,[18] depending on the form of the plant, which is related to its end use. Often these are treated as botanical varieties,[19] but they are cultivated selections, not of natural botanical origin.[10]
Leaf parsley

The two main groups of parsley used as herbs are French, or curly leaf (P. crispum Crispum Group; syn. P. crispum var. crispum); and, Italian, or flat leaf (P. crispum Neapolitanum Group; syn. P. crispum var. neapolitanum). Of these, the Neapolitanum Group more closely resembles the natural wild species. Flat-leaved parsley is preferred by some gardeners as it is easier to cultivate, being more tolerant of both rain and sunshine,[20] and is said to have a stronger flavor[11]—although this is disputed[20]—while curly leaf parsley is preferred by others because of its more decorative appearance in garnishing.[20][21] A third type, sometimes grown in southern Italy, has thick leaf stems resembling celery.[20]
Root parsley
Thickened root, Radicosum Group

Another type of parsley is grown as a root vegetable, the Hamburg root parsley (P. crispum Radicosum Group, syn. P. crispum var. tuberosum). This type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Although seldom used in Britain and the United States, root parsley is common in central and eastern European cuisine, where it is used in soups and stews, or simply eaten raw, as a snack (similar to carrots).[20]

Although root parsley looks similar to the parsnip, which is among its closest relatives in the family Apiaceae, its taste is quite different.
Culinary use
Tabbouleh salad

Parsley is widely used in Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Brazilian, and American cuisine. Curly leaf parsley is used often as a garnish. Green parsley is used frequently as a garnish on potato dishes (boiled or mashed potatoes), on rice dishes (risotto or pilaf), on fish, fried chicken, lamb, goose, and steaks, as well in meat or vegetable stews (including shrimp creole, beef bourguignon, goulash, or chicken paprikash).[22]

Parsley seeds are also used in cooking, imparting a stronger parsley flavor than leaves.[23]

In central Europe, eastern Europe, and southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green, chopped parsley sprinkled on top. In southern and central Europe, parsley is part of bouquet garni, a bundle of fresh herbs used as an ingredient in stocks, soups, and sauces. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups such as chicken soup, green salads, or salads such as salade Olivier, and on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés.
Parsley seeds

Persillade is a mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in French cuisine.

Parsley is the main ingredient in Italian salsa verde, which is a mixed condiment of parsley, capers, anchovies, garlic, and sometimes bread, soaked in vinegar. It is an Italian custom to serve it with bollito misto or fish. Gremolata, a mixture of parsley, garlic, and lemon zest, is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew, ossobuco alla milanese.

In England, parsley sauce is a roux-based sauce, commonly served over fish or gammon. It is also served with Pie and mash in the East End of London where it is referred to as Liquor.

Root parsley is very common in Central, Eastern, and Southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles, and as ingredient for broth.

In Brazil, freshly chopped parsley (salsa) and freshly chopped scallion (cebolinha) are the main ingredients in the herb seasoning called cheiro-verde (literally "green aroma"), which is used as key seasoning for major Brazilian dishes, including meat, chicken, fish, rice, beans, stews, soups, vegetables, salads, condiments, sauces, and stocks. Cheiro-verde is sold in food markets as a bundle of both types of fresh herbs. In some Brazilian regions, chopped parsley may be replaced by chopped coriander (also called cilantro, coentro in Portuguese) in the mixture.

Parsley is a key ingredient in several Middle Eastern salads such as Lebanese tabbouleh; it is also often mixed in with the chickpeas and/or fava beans while making falafel (that gives the inside of the falafel its green color). It is also a main component of the Iranian stew ghormeh sabzi.


"Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
"Parsley - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". Retrieved 2020-09-11.
petroselinon, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus Digital Library
πετροσέλινον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
πέτρα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
σέλινον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexi
The Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Petroselinum crispum Archived 2012-03-09 at the Wayback Machine
Interactive Flora of NW Europe: Petroselinum crispum[permanent dead link]
"Palaeolexicon". Palaeolexicon. Archived from the original on 2016-04-13. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Illustrated Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 3: 532. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
Meyer, H.; Bolarinwa, A.; Wolfram, G. & Linseisen, J. (2006). "Bioavailability of apigenin from apiin-rich parsley in humans" (PDF). Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 50 (3): 167–172. doi:10.1159/000090736. PMID 16407641. S2CID 8223136.
Nutritional Data, Parsley Archived 2013-08-19 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 2013.08.05
Shankar E, Goel A, Gupta K, Gupta S (2017). "Plant flavone apigenin: An emerging anticancer agent". Current Pharmacology Reports. 3 (6): 423–446. doi:10.1007/s40495-017-0113-2. PMC 5791748. PMID 29399439.
Delage, PhD, Barbara (November 2015). "Flavonoids". Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Retrieved 2021-01-26.
"Parsley information on".
Jett, J. W. That Devilish Parsley Archived 2007-06-26 at the Wayback Machine West Virginia University Extension Service. Last retrieved April 26, 2007.
Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database: Sorting Petroselinum names
"Petroselinum crispum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 December 2017.
Stobart, T. (1980). The Cook's Encyclopaedia. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-33036-6.
"How To Grow Parsley". Herb Growing Guide. 20 September 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
Meyer, J. (1998). Authentic Hungarian Heirloon Recipes Cookbook, ed. 2. Meyer & Assoc. ISBN 0-9665062-0-0.

Parsley: More Than a Garnish

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Parsley" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

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