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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Ixoroideae
Tribus: Vanguerieae
Genus: Psydrax
Species: P. acutiflora – P. ammophila – P. amplifolia – P. ankotekonensis – P. arnoldiana – P. attenuata – P. austro-orientalis – P. banksii – P. bathieana – P. bridsoniana – P. calcicola – P. capensis – P. cymigera – P. dicoccos – P. dunlapii – P. esirensis – P. fasciculata – P. faulknerae – P. ficiformis – P. forsteri – P. fragrantissima – P. gilletii – P. glabra – P. graciliflora – P. grandifolia – P. graniticola – P. gynochthodes – P. horizontalis – P. johnsonii – P. kaessneri – P. kibuwae – P. kingii – P. kraussioides – P. lamprophylla – P. latifolia – P. laxiflorens – P. lepida – P. livida – P. locuples – P. longipes – P. longistyla – P. lynesii – P. maingayi – P. manambyana – P. manensis – P. martini – P. micans – P. moandensis – P. moggii – P. montana – P. montigena – P. multiflora – P. mutimushii – P. nitida – P. obovata – P. occidentalis – P. odorata – P. oleifolia – P. pallida – P. palma – P. paludosa – P. paradoxa – P. parviflora – P. pendulina – P. pergracilis – P. polhillii – P. puberula – P. recurvifolia – P. reticulata – P. richardsiae – P. rigidula – P. robertsoniae – P. saligna – P. sambiranensis – P. schimperiana – P. sepikensis – P. shuguriensis – P. splendens – P. suaveolens – P. subcordata – P. suborbicularis – P. tropica – P. umbellata – P. virgata – P. whitei


Psydrax Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. i. 125. t. 26 (1788)

Type species: Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 125. (1788)


Phallaria Schumach. & Thonn. in C.F.Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 112. (1827)
Mitrastigma Harv., London J. Bot. 1: 20. (1842)
Mesoptera Hook.f. in G.Bentham & J.D.Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 130. (1873) nom. illeg. hom. Mesoptera Raf., Herb. Raf.: 73. (1833) nom. rej. vide Liparis Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 30 (1817), nom. cons. (Orchidaceae)

Native distribution areas:

West Tropical Africa
Benin, Burkina, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierre Leone, Togo,.
West-Central Tropical Africa
Burundi, Cabinda, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Islands, Rwanda, Zaïre.
Northeast Tropical Africa
Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan.
East Tropical Africa
Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda.
South Tropical Africa
Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Southern Africa
Botswana, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Namibia, KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Provinces.
Western Indian Ocean
Arabian Peninsula
Saudi Arabia, Yemen.
China South-Central, Hainan, China Southeast, Tibet.
Eastern Asia
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka.
Andaman Islands, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam.
Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaya, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera.
New Guinea, Solomon Islands.
New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia.
Southwestern Pacific
Fiji, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu.
South-Central Pacific
Marquesas, Pitcairn Islands, Society Islands, Tuamotu, Tubuai Islands.
Northwestern Pacific
Caroline Islands, Marianas.
North-Central Pacific

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Gaertner, J. 1788. De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum 1: 125.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Psydrax in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Jan. 26. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Psydrax. Published online. Accessed: Jan. 26 2019. 2019. Psydrax. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 26 Jan. 2019.

Psydrax is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. It consists of trees, shrubs, and a few lianas in the paleotropics.


The genus was named by Joseph Gaertner in 1788 in his book, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum.[1] Psydrax is a Greek word meaning a blister or bump. Gaertner may have chosen this name to refer to the warty fruit or the pimply seeds of some species.[2] The name was hardly ever used after Gaertner proposed it because most authors placed these species in Canthium. Psydrax was reinstated in 1985 and 37 African species were transferred to it from Canthium.[3] The monospecific genus Mesoptera was also sunk into Psydrax.[4] Psydrax was shown to be monophyletic in a molecular phylogenetic study.[5] It is closely related to Afrocanthium, Cyclophyllum and Keetia, genera that have been segregated from Canthium.[5][6]

Psydrax acutiflora (Hiern) Bridson
Psydrax ammophila S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax amplifolia (Elmer)A.P.Davis
Psydrax ankotekonensis (Cavaco) A.P.Davis & Bridson
Psydrax approximatus (Korth.) Mahyuni & K.M.Wong
Psydrax arnoldiana (De Wild. & T.Durand) Bridson
Psydrax attenuata (R.Br. ex Benth.) S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax austro-orientalis (Cavaco) A.P.Davis & Bridson
Psydrax banksii S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax bathieana (Cavaco)A.P.Davis & Bridson
Psydrax bridsoniana Cheek & Sonké
Psydrax calcicola (Craib)A.P.Davis
Psydrax capensis J.C.Manning & Goldblatt
Psydrax cymigera (Valeton)S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn.
Psydrax dunlapii (Hutch. & Dalziel) Bridson
Psydrax esirensis (Cavaco) A.P.Davis & Bridson
Psydrax fasciculata (Blume) A.P.Davis
Psydrax faulknerae Bridson
Psydrax ficiformis (Hook.f.) Bridson
Psydrax forsteri S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax fragrantissima (K.Schum.) Bridson
Psydrax gilletii (De Wild.) Bridson
Psydrax graciliflora (Merr. & L.M.Perry) S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax grandifolia (Thwaites) Ridsdale
Psydrax graniticola (Chiov.) Bridson
Psydrax gynochthodes (Baill.) Arriola, Yayen & Alejandro
Psydrax horizontalis (SChumach. & Thonn.) Bridson
Psydrax johnsonii S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax kaessneri (S.Moore) Bridson
Psydrax kibuwae Bridson
Psydrax kingii (Hook.f.) Bridson & Springate
Psydrax kraussioides (Hiern) Bridson
Psydrax lamprophylla (F.Muell.) Bridson
Psydrax latifolia (F.Muell. ex Benth.) S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax laxiflorens S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax lepida S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax livida (Hiern) Bridson
Psydrax locuples (K.Schum.) Bridson
Psydrax longipes S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax longistyla (Merr.) A.P.Davis
Psydrax lucidulus (Miq.) Mahyuni & K.M.Wong
Psydrax lynesii Bullock ex Bridson
Psydrax maingayi (Hook.f.) Bridson
Psydrax manambyana (Cavaco) A.P.Davis & Bridson
Psydrax manensis (Aubrév. & Pellegr.) Bridson
Psydrax martini (Dunkley) Bridson
Psydrax micans (Bullock) Bridson
Psydrax moandensis Bridson
Psydrax moggii Bridson
Psydrax montana (Thwaites) Ridsdale
Psydrax montigena S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax multiflorus Arriola & Alejandro
Psydrax mutimushii Bridson
Psydrax nitida (Craib) K.M.Wong
Psydrax obovata (Klotzsch ex Eckl. & Zeyh.) Bridson
Psydrax occidentalis (Cavaco) A.P.Davis & Bridson
Psydrax odorata (G.Forst.) A.C.Sm. & S.P.Darwin
Psydrax oleifolia (Hook.) S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax pallida S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax palma (K.Schum.) Bridson
Psydrax paludosa S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax paradoxa (Virot) Mouly
Psydrax parviflora (Afzel.) Bridson
Psydrax pendulina S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax pergracilis (Bourd.) Ridsdale
Psydrax polhillii Bridson
Psydrax puberula Arriola & Alejandro
Psydrax recurvifolia (Bullock) Bridson
Psydrax reticulata (C.T.White) S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax richardsiae Bridson
Psydrax rigidula S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax robertsoniae Bridson
Psydrax sabahensi Mahyuni
Psydrax saligna S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax sambiranensis (Cavaco) A.P.Davis & Bridson
Psydrax schimperiana (A.Rich.) Bridson
Psydrax sepikensis A.P.Davis
Psydrax shuguriensis Bridson
Psydrax splendens (K.Schum.) Bridson
Psydrax suaveolens (S.Moore) S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax subcordata (DC.) Bridson
Psydrax suborbicularis (C.T.White) S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax sumatranus (Miq.) Mahyuni
Psydrax tropica S.T.Reynolds & R.J.F.Hend.
Psydrax umbellata (Wight) Bridson
Psydrax undulatifolius K.M.Wong & Mahyuni
Psydrax virgata (Hiern) Bridson
Psydrax whitei Bridson
Psydrax wongii Mahyuni


Gaertner J (1788). De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum. Vol. 1. p. 125.
Quattrocchi U (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names (3 ed.). Baton Rouge, New York, London, Washington DC.: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-2673-8.
Bridson DM (1985). "The reinstatement of Psydrax (Rubiaceae, subfam. Cinchonoideae tribe Vanguerieae) and a revision of the African species". Kew Bulletin. 40 (4): 687–725. doi:10.2307/4109853. JSTOR 4109853.
Govaerts, Rafaël. "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
Lantz H, Bremer B (2004). "Phylogeny inferred from morphology and DNA data: characterizing well-supported groups in Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 146 (3): 257–283. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00338.x.
Bridson DM (1986). "The reinstatement of the African genus Keetia (Rubiaceae subfam. Cinchonoideae tribe Vanguerieae)". Kew Bulletin. 41 (4): 965–994. doi:10.2307/4102996. JSTOR 4102996.

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