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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Carduoideae
Tribus: Cardueae
Subtribus: Centaureinae
Genus: Rhaponticum
Species: R. acaule – R. annae-bentiae – R. aulieatense – R. australe – R. berardioides – R. canariense – R. carthamoides – R. centauroides – R. chinense – R. coniferum – R. cossonianum – R. exaltatum – R. froedinii – R. heleniifolium – R. insignis – R. integrifolium – R. karatavicum – R. longifolium – R. lyratum – R. namanganicum – R. nanum – R. nitidum – R. pulchrum – R. pygmaeum – R. repens – R. scariosum – R. serratuloides – R. uniflorum

Rhaponticum Ludw., Inst. Regn. Veg., ed. 2. 123. (1757) nom. cons.

Type species: Non designatus


Rhaponticum Haller, Enum. Stirp. Helv. 2: 687 (1742) nom. inval. pre 1753
Rhaponticum Adans., Fam. Pl. (Adanson) 2: 117 (1763); Juss. Gen. 174 (1789) nom. illeg. hom.
Rhaponticum Vaill., Königl. Akad. Wiss. Paris Anat. Abh. 5: 177. (1754) nom. inval. Steinwehr, W.B.A. von (transl.), 1754–1760. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Paris Anat. Abh., vols. 5-7: suppressed work for Genera and species names. See Brummitt (2008) no decision.
Stemmacantha Cass., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 12. (1817)
Acroptilon Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. (F.Cuvier) 50: 464. (1827) nom. illeg. see Brummitt (2008)
Leuzea DC., Fl. Franç. (Candolle & Lamarck) ed. 3, 4: 109. (1805)
Klaseopsis L.Martins, Taxon 55(4): 974. (2006)


Ludwig, C.G. 1757. Institutiones Historico-Physicae Regni Vegetabilis. Edition 2. 123.
Brummitt, R. K. 2008. Proposal to add the 1754–1756 German translation of S. Vaillant, Établissement de nouveaux caractères de trois familles, 1719–1725, to the “Opera utique oppressa”. Taxon 57: 663.
Candolle, A.P. de 1805. Fl. Franç. (Candolle & Lamarck) ed. 3, 4: 109.
Hassler, M. 2018. Rhaponticum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 May 10. Reference page.
Hidalgo, O., Garcia-Jacas, N., Garnatje, T. & Susanna, A. 2006. Phylogeny of Rhaponticum (Asteraceae, Cardueae–Centaureinae) and related genera inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data: taxonomic and biogeographic implications. Annals of Botany 97(5): 705–714. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcl029 Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Rhaponticum. Published online. Accessed: May 10 2018.
Martins, L. 2006. Klaseopsis and Archiserratula: Two New Genera Segregated from Serratula (Compositae, Cardueae). Taxon 55(4): 973–976. DOI: 10.2307/25065691 JSTOR Reference page.
Martins, L. 2006. Systematics and biogeography of Klasea (Asteraceae–Cardueae) and a synopsis of the genus. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152(4): 435–464. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2006.00583.x Reference page.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Zəfəranabənzər levzey
башҡортса: Марал тамыры
Deutsch: Bergscharten
English: Maral Root
italiano: Fiordaliso
қазақша: Левзея
polski: Szczodrak krokoszowaty
русский: Левзея

Rhaponticum, is a genus of flowering plants in the thistle tribe within the sunflower family.[2][3]


Rhaponticum species are perennial herbaceous plants with simple, rarely branched stems. The leaves are simple to pinnatifid. The inflorescence is on the apex of the stem. The fruit is an achene with a hairy pappus.[4]

The genus comprises the following species.[1][5][6][7]

Rhaponticum acaule (L.) DC. - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya
Rhaponticum aulieatense Iljin - Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
Rhaponticum australe (Gaudich.) - Austral cornflower, native thistle - Queensland, Victoria
Rhaponticum berardioides (Batt.) Dobignard - Morocco
Rhaponticum canariense DC. - Canary Islands
Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin - maral root - Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Russia (Altai Krai, Chita, Irkutsk)
Rhaponticum centauroides (L.) O.Bolòs - France, Spain
Rhaponticum coniferum (L.) Greuter - Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia
Rhaponticum cossonianum (Ball) Greuter - Morocco
Rhaponticum exaltatum (Willk.) Greuter - Spain, Portugal, Morocco
Rhaponticum heleniifolium Godr. & Gren. - Austria, Switzerland, France, Italy
Rhaponticum hierroi (Eren.) Kangay - Turkey
Rhaponticum insigne (Boiss.) Wagenitz - Iran, Turkey
Rhaponticum integrifolium C.Winkl. - Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
Rhaponticum karatavicum Iljin - Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
Rhaponticum longifolium (Hoffmanns. & Link) Dittrich - Morocco
Rhaponticum lyratum C.Winkl. ex Iljin - Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
Rhaponticum namanganicum Iljin - Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
Rhaponticum nanum Lipsky - Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan
Rhaponticum nitidum Fisch. - Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Altai Krai
Rhaponticum orientale (Serg.) Peshkova
Rhaponticum pulchrum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. - Azerbaijan, Republic of Georgia, Iran, Afghanistan
Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo - Russian knapweed, creeping knapweed, hardheads, blueweed - Central Asia; naturalized in Europe, southwest Asia, Australia, North America
Rhaponticum scariosum Lam. - France, Italy, Switzerland, Slovenia
Rhaponticum serratuloides (Georgi) Bobrov - Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, European Russia, Moldova, Altai Krai, Turkey, Kazakhstan

Formerly included

Several species are now relegated to other genera: Centaurea, Klasea, Ochrocephala, Stemmacantha, and Synurus.[1]

Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist Archived 2014-11-06 at
Vaillant, Sébastien. 1754. Der Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Paris Physische Abhandlungen 5: 177
Tropicos, Rhaponticum Vaill.
Rhaponticum. Flora of China.
Hidalgo, O., et al. (2006). Phylogeny of Rhaponticum (Asteraceae, Cardueae–Centaureinae) and related genera inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data: taxonomic and biogeographic implications. Annals of Botany 97(5), 705-14.
"Rhaponticum". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
GRIN Species Records of Rhaponticum. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

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