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Sonchus arvensis

Sonchus arvensis

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Cichorioideae
Tribus: Cichorieae
Subtribus: Hyoseridinae
Genus: Sonchus
Subgenus: Sonchus subg. Sonchus
Section: Sonchus sect. Arvenses
Species: Sonchus arvensis
Subspecies: S. a. subsp. arvensis – S. a. subsp. humilis – S. a. subsp. uliginosus

Sonchus arvensis L. Sp. pl. 2:793 (1753)

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 793. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Sonchus arvensis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: March 3, 2019.

Vernacular names
العربية: تفاف بستاني
беларуская: Асот палявы
català: Lletsó arvense
čeština: Mléč rolní
Cymraeg: Llaethysgallen y tir âr
dansk: Ager-Svinemælk
Deutsch: Acker-Gänsedistel
English: Perennial Sowthistle
español: Cardincha
suomi: Peltovalvatti
français: Laiteron des champs
հայերեն: իշամառոլ դաշտային
Bahasa, Indonesia: Daun Tempuyung
italiano: Grespino dei campi
日本語: タイワンハチジョウナ
Jawa: Tempuyung
lietuvių: Dirvinė pienė
Nederlands: Akkermelkdistel
norsk nynorsk: Åkerdylle
norsk: Åkerdylle
ирон: Игæрхос
polski: Mlecz polny
română: Susai
русский: Осот полевой
саха тыла: Ыт тыла
slovenčina: mlieč roľný
svenska: Åkermolke
中文: 苣荬菜

Sonchus arvensis, the field milk thistle,[2] field sowthistle,[3] perennial sow-thistle,[4] corn sow thistle, dindle, gutweed, swine thistle, or tree sow thistle, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. S. arvensis often occurs in annual crop fields and may cause substantial yield losses.[5]


The plant grows up to 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) in height,[6]: 744  with leaves 10–35 cm (4–13+3⁄4 in) long and 4–14 cm (1+1⁄2–5+1⁄2 in) wide.[7] It produces conspicuous yellow flowerheads about 3–5 cm (1+1⁄4–2 in) wide,[7] which are visited by various types of insects—especially hoverflies of the genus Eristalis.[8]

Sonchus arvensis is native to Europe, where it is widespread across most of the continent.[9] It has also become naturalized in many other regions, and is considered an invasive noxious weed in some places, such as North America (including Prince Edward Island),[10] Russia, New Zealand, United Kingdom and Australia.[11][12][13]

It grows in areas such as pastures, roadsides, bushlands and the shorelines of lakes, rivers[14] and sea coast.[15]

The young leaves, when less than a few inches long and not bitter in taste, can be mixed with other greens to make salad. They can also be boiled in a small quantity of water, changed once. The plant can contain toxic nitrates.[7]

The Plant List, Sonchus arvensis L.
Sonchus arvensis at Plants For A Future
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Sonchus arvensis". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
"Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)". Invasive Species Compendium. 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
Stace, C. A. (2019). New Flora of the British Isles (Fourth ed.). Middlewood Green, Suffolk, U.K.: C & M Floristics. ISBN 978-1-5272-2630-2.
Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009) [1982]. Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. New York: Sterling. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-4027-6715-9. OCLC 244766414.
Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers". Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. PMID 25754608.
Altervista Flora Italiana, Sonchus arvensis L. includes photos, European distribution map
Guardian, The. "'Giant dandelion' taking up space in P.E.I." The Guardian (Charlottetown). Retrieved 2020-11-17.
"List of invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
Davidse, G., M. Sousa-Peña, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera. 2015. Asteraceae. 5(2): ined. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
Atlas of Living Australia
Corn sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis) by NSW WeedWise
"Sonchus arvensis". Online Atlas of the British Flora. Biological Records Centre and Botanical society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 17 November 2020.

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