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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Sternorrhyncha
Superfamilia: Coccoidea

Familia: Asterolecaniidae
Genera (25): Abditicoccus – Amorphococcus – Asterodiaspis – Asterolecanium – Bambusaspis – Elegatis – Endernia – Eremococcus – Frenchia – Grammococcus – Hsuia – Hyalococcus – Liuaspis – Mycetococcus – Mycococcus – Neoasterodiaspis – Oacoccus – Palmaspis – Pauroaspis – Planchonia – Polea – Pollinia – Russellaspis – Sclerosococcus – Trachycoccus

[source: ScaleNet]
References

Giliomee, J.H.; Kozar, F. 2008: Review of the family Asterolecaniidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in South Africa, with the description of a new species. African entomology, 16: 276–286.
Łagowska, B., Martin, J.H. & Hodgson, C.J. 2015. A new species of Bambusaspis Cockerell (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) colonising bamboo in Malaysia. Zootaxa 4006(1): 128–142. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4006.1.6. Preview (PDF) Reference page.
Wu, S.J. 1992. A new species of Bambusaspis (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Acta Entomologica Sinica 35(1): 75-77. Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: pit scales

Asterolecaniidae is a family of scale insects commonly known as pit scales or asterolecaniids. They typically cause a depression in the host plant's tissues and often cause distortion of the shoots. They are found on a range of hosts but are especially common on oaks, bamboos and a number of ornamental plants. Members of this family occur in most regions of the world but are most abundant in the northern hemisphere.[2] There are about 25 genera and 243 recorded species.[3]
Life cycle

Pit scales in this family have three female instars and five male instars. They are generally found on the leaves or shoots of the host plant and often cause deformation. The body is usually covered by a clear or transparent test. Eggs are laid under this and occupy the cavity formed as the adult female dies and shrinks in the autumn. Males are not usually found but when they do occur, they develop under a test in a similar fashion to the females.[2]
Genera

Abditicoccus
Acanthococcus
Amorphococcus
Asterodiaspis
Asterolecanium
Bambusaspis
Elegatis
Endernia
Frenchia
Grammococcus
Hsuia
Hyalococcus
Liuaspis
Mycetococcus
Mycococcus
Neoasterodiaspis
Oacoccus
Palmaspis
Pauroaspis
Planchonia
Polea
Pollinia
Russellaspis
Sclerosococcus
Trachycoccus

References

Enderlein, G. 1914. [Scale insects]. 369–370. In: Brohmer, P. (Editor), Fauna von Deutschland, ein Bestimmungsbuch unserer heimischen Tierwelt. Leipzig.
UDSA Agricultural Research Service Archived October 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
Scale Net Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

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