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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladi: "basal Neoptera" - Eumetabola - Polyneoptera
[list of cladi adapted from Grimaldi & Engel (2005: 147, table 4.1)]
Overview of orders

Extant groups: Blattodea - Coleoptera - Dermaptera - Diptera - Embiidina - Hemiptera - Hymenoptera - Isoptera - Lepidoptera - Mantodea - Mecoptera - Megaloptera - Neuroptera - Notoptera - Orthoptera - Phasmatodea - Phthiraptera - Plecoptera - Psocoptera - Raphidioptera - Siphonaptera - Skleroptera - Strepsiptera - Thysanoptera - Trichoptera - Zoraptera

Familia incertae sedis: †Baryshnyalidae

Name

Neoptera Martynov, 1923
References

Martynov, A.V. & Deryugina, K.M. 1923. O dvukh osnovnykh tipakh kryl'ev nasekomykh i ikh znachenii dlya obshcheı klassifikatsii nasekomykh.[On two main types of insect wings and their significance for the general classification of insects.] Trudy I Vserossiıskogo s'ezda zoologov, anatomov i … Reference page.
Ali, D.W. and D.C. Darling. 1998: Neuroanatomy and neurochemistry: implications for the phylogeny of the lower Neoptera. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76(9): 1628–1633.
Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. 2005: Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. limited preview on Google books
Ilger, J.-M.; Brauckmann, C. 2011: The smallest Neoptera (Baryshnyalidae fam. n.) from Hagen-Vorhalle (early Late Carboniferous: Namurian B; Germany). ZooKeys 130: 91–102. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.130.1422 Open access.
Terry, M.D. and M.F. Whiting. 2005: Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics, 21(3): 240–257.
Wheeler, W.C., M. Whiting, Q.D. Wheeler, and J.M. Carpenter. 2001: The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. Cladistics, 17: 113–169.

Links

Neoptera – Taxon details on Paleobiology Database.

Vernacular names
български: Новокрили
Deutsch: Neuflügler
français: Néoptère
magyar: Újszárnyúak
日本語: 新翅節 (しんしせつ)
한국어: 신시하강
português: Neópteros
русский: Новокрылые насекомые
Türkçe: Gelişmiş böcekler
中文: 新翅下綱


Neoptera (Ancient Greek néos (“new”) + pterón (“wing”)) is a classification group that includes most orders of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.

Classification

The taxon Neoptera was proposed by А.М. Martynov in 1923 and 1924, in the following classification:[1][2]

Pterygota

division Palaeoptera
order Odonata
order Agnatha (correct name: Ephemeroptera)
†order Dictyoneuridea
†order Megasecoptera
†order Protodonata
†order Protephemeroidea
division Neoptera
subdivision Polyneoptera
superorder Orthopteroidea (Anartioptera)
order Orthoptera
order Plecoptera
order Dermaptera
order Embioptera
order Phasmatodea
superorder Blattopteroidea (senior name: Pandictyoptera)
order Blattodea
order Mantodea
subdivision Paraneoptera
order Hemiptera (correct name: Arthroidignatha)
suborder Phytophtires (correct name: Plantisuga)
suborder Auchenorrhyncha
suborder Heteroptera
subdivision Oligoneoptera

The order Thysanoptera originally had uncertain systematic position, and later was attributed to Paraneoptera.

Later, a number of other classifications had been proposed. According to various points of view, Neoptera is subordinated either directly to Pterygota (as in Martynov's classification), or to Metapterygota:

Pterygota Gegenbaur 1878
Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1890
Metapterygota Börner 1909
Odonata Fabricius 1793
Neoptera Martynov 1923

Phylogeny

The phylogeny of Neoptera is shown in the cladogram, not fully resolved, according to Kluge 2004, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2019, 2020 using morphological characteristics according to the principles of cladoendesis:[3][4][5]

Neoptera
Idioprothoraca

Embioptera (webspinners) Embia major hor.png

Notoptera (ice crawlers) Grylloblattidae (white background).jpg

Rhipineoptera

Plecoptera (stoneflies) Neoperla clymene hor.png

Tegminoptera
Pandictyoptera

Blattodea (cockroaches, termites) Temnopteryx species Zebra Cockroach (white background).jpg

Mantodea (mantises) Stagmomantis carolina usda hor.png

Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets) Gryllidae usda.png

Phasmatodea (stick insects, including Mantophasmatidae) Stick insect line diagram.png

Dermaptera (earwigs) Earwig on white background.jpg

Eumetabola
Parametabola

Zoraptera (angel insects) Zorotypus guineensis (white background).jpg

Acercaria
Condylognatha

Thysanoptera (thrips) Thrips (PSF) (white background).png

Arthroidignatha (= "Hemiptera" auct.) (bugs) Dorisiana bicolor MHNT, Montsinéry, Guyane dos vol 2.jpg

Panpsocoptera

Psocoptera (bark lice) Psocoptera (white background).jpg

Phthiraptera (lice) Lice Body (cropped).png

Endopterygota
Elytrophora

Coleoptera (beetles) Pseudacrossus przewalskyi (Reitter, 1887).jpg

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites) Elenchus koebelei.jpg

Coleopteroidea
Neuropteroidea

Neuroptera (net-winged insects) Osmylus (white background).jpg

Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Raphidia icon.png

Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies) Corydalus cornutus illustration (rotated).png

Mecopteriformia

Diptera (true flies) Common house fly, Musca domestica.jpg

Enteracantha

Mecoptera except Boreidae (scorpionflies) Scorpionfly (white background).jpg

Calyptroptera

Boreidae (snow scorpionflies) Boreus hiemalis2 detail.jpg

Siphonaptera (fleas) Pulex irritans female ZSM (white background).jpg

Amphiesmenoptera

Trichoptera (caddisflies) RHYACOPHILA DORSALIS Male Pont Forge de Sailly Watigny 02 MHNT.jpg

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Arctia villica SLU.JPG

Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees) European wasp white bg.jpg


References

Martynov, A. V. (1923). "О двух основных типах крыльев насекомых и их значении для общей классификаци насекомых" [On the two main types of insect wings and their significance for the general classification of insects]. Proceedings of the I All-Russian Congress of Zoologists, Anatomists and Histologists in Petrograd on 15-21 December 1922: 88–89.
Martynov, A. V. (1924). "О двух типах крыльев насекомых и их эволюции" [There are two types of drug addicts and evolutionists]. Russian Zoological Journal. 4 (1, 2): 155–185.
Kluge, Nikita J. (2004). "Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 13 (4): 189–229.
Kluge, Nikita J. (2010). "Circumscriptional names of higher taxa in Hexapoda" (PDF). Bionomina. 1: 15–55.
Kluge, Nikita J. (2012). "General System of Neoptera with Description of a New Species of Embioptera" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 21 (4): 371–384. Further material from Kluge is available at Tegminoptera & Calyptroptera 2013 Tetrastigmoptera 2019 Insect systematics and principles of cladoendesis.

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