- Art Gallery -

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordo: Auchenorrhyncha
Infraorder: Fulgoromorpha
Superfamilia: Fulgoroidea

Familia: Cixiidae
Subfamiliae (3): Borystheninae - Bothriocerinae - Cixiinae

Genera Incertae sedis total (11):
Extant groups (3): Bangoliarus – Chlorodus – Issomimus
Fossil groups (8): †Balticixius – †Cretofennahia – †Karebodopoides – †Mundopoides – †Oeclixius – †Oligocixia – †Perkunus – †Plecophlebus
Overview of genera (247)

Achaebana – Achaemenes – Adolendana – Afroreptalus – Aka – Amazobenna – Andes – Andixius – Anilus – Ankistrus – Anoculiarus – Antillixius – Apartus – Asotocixius – Ateson – Atonurus – Aubirestus – Aulocorypha – Autrimpu – Bajauana – †Balticixius – Balyadimetopia – Bangoliarus – Barbonia – Bashguetala – Benna – Bennarella – Betacixius – Bodecia – Borbonomyndus – Borysthenes – †Bothriobaltia – Bothriocera – Bothrioceretta – Brixia – Brixidia – Caffrocixius – Cajeta – Calamister – Candicarina – Caneirona – Carolus – Celebenna – Cermada – Chathamaka – Chidea – Chlorodus – Cixiosoma – Cixius – Colvanalia – Confuga – Cordoliarus – Corylonga – †Cretofennahia – Cubana – Cubanella – Cyclopoliarus – Diastrocixius – Dilacreon – Discophorellus – Dorialus – Duilius – Dysoliarus – Dystheatias – Epoliarus – Eucarpia – Eumecurus – Eumyndus – Euryphlepsia – Ferricixius – Fipsianus – Flachaemus – Fletcherolus – Gelastocaledonia – Gelastocephalus – †Glisachaemus – Gonophallus – Gurrundus – Guttala – Haplaxius – Hartliebia – Helenolius – Holgus – Huttia – Hyalesthes – Indolipa – Innobindus – Iolania – Ithma – †Karebodopoides – Kibofascius – Kirbyana – Koroana – †Kulickamia – Kuvera – Lalobidius – Larivierea – Leades – Leptolamia – Lipsia – Macrocixius – Malpha – Manurevana – Meenocixius – Melandeva – Melanoclypeus – Mesocixiella – Mesoliarus – Metaplacha – Miclucha – Microledrida – †Mnaomaia – †Mnasthaia – Mnemosyne – Monomalpha – Monorachis – Muirolonia – Mundopa – †Mundopoides – Myndodus – Myndus – Nanocixius – Narravertus – Neocarpia – Neocixius – Nesochlamys – Nesoliarus – Nesomyndus – Nivcentia – Noabennarella – Norialsus – Notocharis – Notocixius – Notolathrus – Novotarberus – Nymphocixia – Oecleopsis – Oecleus – †Oeclixius – Oliarellus – Oliarissa – Oliaronus – Oliarus – Oligocixia – †Oligocixia – Olipa – Oliparisca – Orphninus – Oteana – Ozoliarus – Pachyntheisa – Parandes – Parasemo – Payastylus – Peartolus – Pentastira – Pentastiridius – Perindus – †Perkunus – Phytocentor – Pinacites – Pintalia – Platycixius – Prosops – Pseudoliarus – Reptalus – Rhamphixius – Rhigedanus – Rokebia – Ronaldia – Sardocixius – Schuerrera – Semicixius – Semo – Setapius – Simplicixius – Solonaima – Sphaerocixius – †Stalisyne – Stegocixius – Stenophlepsia – Suriola – Tachycixius – Tiriteana – Trigonocranus – Trirhacus – Typhlobrixia – Undarana – Urvillea – Vinata – Volcanalia – Wernindia – Yarnikada – Zeoliarus
Name

Cixiidae Spinola, 1839

Type genus: Cixius Latreille, 1804

References

Spinola M. 1839: Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. Paris, 8: 133–337.

Ceotto, P.; Bourgoin, T. 2008: Insights into the phylogenetic relationships within Cixiidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha): cladistic analysis of a morphological dataset. Systematic entomology, 33: 484–500.
Emeljanov, A.F., 1993: Planthoppers of the family Cixiidae from vicinity of Ambo, Ethiopia (Homoptera, Cicadina). Zoosystematica Rossica 1(0): 20–36.
Emeljanov, A.F. 2002: Contribution to classification and phylogeny of the family Cixiidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha). Denisia, 4: 103–112.
Holzinger, W.E.; Emeljanov, A.F.; Kammerlander, I. 2002: The family Cixiidae Spinola, 1839 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) — a review. Denisia, 4: 113–138.
Zhi, Y., Yang, L., Zheng, P. & Chen, X-S. 2018. Two new species of the genus Andixius Emeljanov & Hayashi from China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae). ZooKeys 739: 55-64. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.739.13043. Reference page.

Links

Cixiidae Taxon details in FLOW - Hemiptera data bases

Vernacular names
English: planthoppers

The Cixiidae are a family of fulgoroid insects, one of many families commonly known as planthoppers, distributed worldwide and comprising more than 2,000 species from over 150 genera. The genera are placed into three subfamilies, Borystheninae, Bothriocerinae and Cixiinae with sixteen tribes currently accepted in Cixiinae.[1]

Description
Cixius sp.

Cixiid species are typically comparatively small (body size less than a centimeter) and usually inconspicuous. The face is longer than wide and the head is narrower than the pronotum. The forewings are at least partly transparent and the veins bear minute setae. The hind tibiae end in a cluster of spines and may sometimes have spines along their length. Nymphs live underground, feeding on roots. Adults feed on herbs, shrubs and/or trees; some are polyphagous, while others are specialised on their host plants (monophagous). A couple of species are cavernicolous, feeding on roots in volcanic caves. Females occasionally bear impressive "wax tails" produced by wax-producing plates at the tip of their abdomen.[2][3]

Several species are of economic importance (e.g. Hyalesthes obsoletus, Haplaxius crudus). Phytoplasma are common parasites in these insects, causing diseases in coconut palms and foliage, grapevines, sugar beets, and lilies.[4]
Fossil record

The fossil record of Cixiidae is limited, and a number of taxa which have placed into the family may need to be reexamined and moved to different families. The oldest confirmed taxa are from the Early Cretaceous with ‘Cixius’ petrinus described from Barremian deposits in England, Karebodopoides aptianus from Hauterivian to Aptian Lebanese amber and Cretofennahia cretacea plus an unnamed specimen from the Aptian of Brazil.[5] Due to the abundant nature of Cixiidae as inclusions in Eocene Baltic amber a number of taxa have been described, including Glisachaemus jonasdamzeni and Autrimpus sambiorum. Several taxa have also been described from Miocene Dominican amber including Oligocixia electrina and Oliarius kulickae.[5]

References

Ceotto, P.; Bourgoin, T. (2008). "Insights into the phylogenetic relationships within Cixiidae (Hemiptera : Fulgoromorpha): cladistic analysis of a morphological dataset". Systematic Entomology. 33 (3): 484–500. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2008.00426.x.
Kramer, J.P. (1983). "Taxonomic study of the planthopper family Cixiidae in the United States (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea)" (PDF). Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 109 (1): 1–57. JSTOR 25078313.
Holzinger W. E.; Emeljanov A. F.; Kammerlander I. (2002). "The family Cixiidae Spinola 1839 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromropha) - a review" (PDF). Denisia. 4: 113–138.
Wilson S.W. (2005). "Keys to the families of Fulgoromorpha with emphasis on planthoppers of potential economic importance in the southeastern United States (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha)". Florida Entomologist. 88 (4): 464–481. doi:10.1653/0015-4040(2005)88[464:kttfof]2.0.co;2.
Szwedo, J. (2007). "Glisachaemus jonasdamzeni gen. et sp. nov. of Cixiidae from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha)" (PDF). Alavesia. 1: 109–116. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19.

Insects Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World