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Drilus flavescens

Drilus flavescens

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Polyphaga
Infraordo: Elateriformia
Superfamilia: Cantharoidea
Familia: Drilidae
Tribus: Drilini
Genus: Drilus
Species: Drilus flavescens
Name

Drilus flavescens Olivier, 1790
References

Drilus flavescens (Geoffroy, 1785) (Drilidae: Drilini) - atlas of beetles of Russia

Drilus flavescens is a species of beetles belonging to the family Drilidae.[1]

Distribution

This insect is mainly present in Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Italy, Spain, Germany and Switzerland.[2]
Description

Drilus flavescens is one of the most extreme cases of sexual dimorphism in insects. The females of this beetle look like a caterpillar – so called larviform females – completely lacking wings and other adult characters.

Adult males are approximately 10 millimetres (0.39 in) long. They have long comb-shaped antennas, probably utilized for detecting pheromones of females. Head and pronotum are black, while elytra are reddish, quite soft and covered of fine upstanding hairs.
Biology
Drilus flavescens - male on an Arundo donax plant

Adult males of these insects can be encountered on flowers and foliage. Female live on the ground and can be encountered in the shells of snails (frequently Fruticicola fruticum [O. F. Müller, 1774]), feeding on the inhabitants, previously killed with a poisonous bite and sucked up with the help of digestive enzymes.[3][4]

The eggs are laid in the soil under the litter and the young larvae of this beetle are covered with hairs. They are predators of terrestrial snails. Upon reaching maximum size (about 20 mm) the larva seeks out a snail shell in which to pupate. By clinging to a snail's shell via the suction cup on the terminal segment of the abdomen, the larva then bites the snail, injecting paralyzing venom that liquefies the snail's flesh with digestive enzymes. The flesh of the snail is then soft enough for the larva to burrow through the snail and enter the shell. Once installed, the larva undergoes hypermetamorphosis; the legs are reduced and the hair largely disappears. This secondary larva will overwinter in the snail shell before pupating.
References

Biolib
Fauna europaea
Michael Chinery, Insectes de France et d'Europe occidentale, Paris, Flammarion, 2012, 320 p. (ISBN 978-2-0812-8823-2), p. 268-269
Jules Michelet, L'insecte, l'infini vivant, Paris, Hachette et compagnie, 1884, 463 p., p. 199-200

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Biology Encyclopedia

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