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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Cladi: Neornithes – †Ichthyornithiformes
Genera incertae sedis: †Piksi
secundum Cau, 2018

Cladus: Carinatae
Cladi: Ornithurae – †Patagopterygiformes – †Ichthyornis
Name

Carinatae Merrem, 1813: 238
Synonyms

Eurhipidurae Cope, 1889
Ornithurae? Haeckel, 1866
Ornithothoraces? Chiappe & Calvo, 1994

References
Primary references

Merrem, B. 1813. Tentamen Systematis naturalis Avium. Abhandlungen der physikalischen Klasse der Königlich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 237–259. BHL Reference page.
Haeckel, E. 1866. Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Allgemeine Grundzüge der organischen Formen-Wissenschaft, mechanisch begründet durch die von Charles Darwin reformirte Descendenztheorie. Zweiter Band: Allgemeine Entwickelungsgeschichte der Organismen. clx + 462 pp., pls I–VIII. Berlin: Georg Reimer. BHL Reference page.
Cope, E.D. 1889. Synopsis of the Families of Vertebrata. The American Naturalist 23(274): 849–877. DOI: 10.1086/275018 BHL Reference page.
Chiappe, L.M. & Calvo, J.O. 1994. Neuquenornis volans, a new Late Cretaceous bird (Enantiornithes, Avisauridae) from Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14(2): 230–246. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.1994.10011554 ResearchGate Reference page.

Additional references

Cau, A. 2018. The assembly of the avian body plan: a 160-million-year long process. Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 57(1): 1–25. DOI: 10.4435/BSPI.2018.01 ResearchGate Reference page.
Gauthier, J. & de Queiroz, K. 2001. Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name "Aves". pp. 7–41. In Gauthier, J. & Gall, L.F. (eds.) New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom. New Haven: Peabody Museum of Natural History. ISBN 0-912532-57-2 hdl: 10088/4690 Reference page.
Cracraft, J. 1986. The origin and early diversification of birds. Paleobiology 12(4): 383–399.
Lee, M.S.Y., Cau, A., Naish, D., Dyke, G.J. May 2014. Morphological Clocks in Paleontology, and a Mid-Cretaceous Origin of Crown Aves. Systematic Biology 63(3): 442–449. DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syt110 PMID: 24449041

Vernacular names
English: Carinatae
français: Carinates
日本語: 胸峰類
македонски: Кобиличарки


Carinatae is the group of all birds and their extinct relatives to possess a keel, or "carina", on the underside of the breastbone used to anchor large flight muscles.
Classification
Definition

Traditionally, Carinatae were defined as all birds whose sternum (breast bone) has a keel (carina). The keel is a strong median ridge running down the length of the sternum. This is an important area for the attachment of flight muscles. Thus, all flying birds have a pronounced keel. Ratites, all of which are flightless, lack a strong keel. Thus, living birds were divided into carinatae (keeled) and ratites (from ratis, "raft", referring to the flatness of the sternum). The difficulty with this scheme phylogenetically was that some flightless birds, without strong keels, are descended directly from ordinary flying birds possessing one. Examples include the kakapo, a flightless parrot, and the dodo, a columbiform (the pigeon family). Neither of these birds are a ratite. Thus, this supposedly distinctive feature was easy to use, but had nothing to do with actual phylogenetic relationship.[citation needed]

Beginning in the 1980s, Carinatae was given several phylogenetic definitions. The first was as a node-based clade uniting Ichthyornis with modern birds.[1] However, in many analyses, this definition would be synonymous with the more widely used name Ornithurae. An alternate definition was provided in 2001, naming Carinatae an apomorphy-based clade defined by the presence of a keeled sternum.[2]

The most primitive known bird relative with a keeled breastbone is Confuciusornis. While some specimens of this stem-bird have flat breastbones, some show a small ridge that could have supported a cartilaginous keel.[3]
References

Cracraft, Joel (1986). "The origin and early diversification of birds". Paleobiology. 12 (4): 383–399. doi:10.1017/s0094837300003122.
Gauthier, Jacques; de Queiroz, Kevin (2001). Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name "Aves". New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrum. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University. pp. 7–41.
Chiappe, Luis M.; Ji, Shu' An; Ji, Qiang; Norell, Mark A. (1999). "Anatomy and systematics of the Confuciusornithidae (Theropoda, Aves) from the late Mesozoic of northeastern China". Bulletin of the AMNH. 242.

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