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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Psittaculidae
Subfamilia: Loriinae
Genus: Eos
Species: E. bornea - E. cyanogenia - E. histrio - E. reticulata - E. semilarvata - E. squamata

Name

Eos Wagler, 1832
References

Wagler, J.G., 1832. Monographia Psittacorum, page 494. In: Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Classe der Koeniglisch Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, München. 750 p. BHL

Vernacular names
suomi: Punalurit
français: Eos (genre)
русский: Красные лори

Eos is a genus of parrots belonging to the lories and lorikeets tribe of the family Psittaculidae. There are six species which are all endemic to islands of eastern Indonesia,[1][2] most within very restricted ranges. They have predominantly red plumage with blue, purple or black markings. Males and females are similar in appearance.

Their habitats include forest, coconut plantations and mangroves. They gather in flowering trees to feed on nectar and pollen with their brush-tipped tongues. Fruit and insects are also eaten. They make nests in tree hollows generally high in old large trees. Threats to these parrots include habitat loss and trapping for the cagebird trade, and one species, the red-and-blue lory, is classified as endangered.
Description

The plumage of Eos lories is predominantly red, set off with blue, purple or black markings.[1][2] They range in length from 24 cm (9.5 in) in the blue-eared lory[2] to 31 cm (12 in) in several of the larger species.[1][2] The bill is orange-red, the irises are reddish to reddish-brown, and the legs are grey. Males and females are identical in external appearance.[3] They have a musky odour, especially noticeable in the black-winged lory, which is retained even in museum skins.[4] Juvenile birds are partly striated owing to feathers with darker or dusky tips,[1][4] and they have orange-brown to black beaks.[1]

Species in the genus Eos are distinguished from lories in the genus Chalcopsitta by shorter tails and the absence of a bare patch of skin around the mandibles.[4] Members of Eos do not have green plumage, which helps to distinguish them from some species of other lory genera.[3]

Eos (Ἔως) is Greek for "dawn", referring to the red plumage.
Behaviour and ecology

The Eos lories feed on the nectar and pollen of various trees and plants. Very little is known about the diet of most species, but birds have been observed feeding on the flowers of coconuts, Eugenia, coral trees (Erythrina), Canarium, and sago palm (Metroxylon). In addition, they have been observed feeding on unripe fruits of fig trees (Ficus), and insects have been found in the stomachs of at least one species (the red lory). Some species are reported to be nomadic, moving between islands within their range in order to find food. These movements can apparently be daily as well, with the violet-necked lory making daily trips from its main islands to smaller offshore islands.[5]

The Eos lories are apparently seasonal breeders, with birds prospecting for nesting sites varying by species, having been observed in June and July in the black-winged lory but August and September in the red lory. Like most parrots, they are cavity nesters, generally nesting high in older large trees either in forests or in modified habitats. Most of what is known about their nesting behaviour is derived from captive birds. They generally have a clutch size of two eggs which are incubated for 26–27 days. Chicks take around 75–87 days to fledge.[5]
Status and conservation
Eos unicolor, a possibly extinct species from the Moluccas

Threats to these parrots include habitat loss and trapping for the cagebird trade. For example, between 1983 and 1989 an average of 3,200 red lories were trapped and exported per year, which has apparently led to declines in some parts of its range.[5] The red-and-blue lory is an endangered species,[6] and the black-winged lory is classed as vulnerable.[7] The red-and-blue lory is listed under Appendix I of CITES,[8] banning all trade in wild caught birds,[5] while all other species are listed under Appendix II and require permits for their trade.
Taxonomy

The genus Eos was introduced by the German naturalist Johann Georg Wagler in 1832.[9] The type species was subsequently designated as the red-and-blue lory (Eos histrio) by the English zoologist George Robert Gray in 1840.[10] The genus name is from the Ancient Greek eōs meaning "dawn".[11]

The closest relatives of this genus are the species in the genus Trichoglossus.[12][13] The genera Eos, Trichoglossus, Chalcopsitta, and Pseudeos form a single clade within the lories and lorikeets.[12][13] The cardinal lory (Chalcopsitta cardinalis) has sometimes been placed in the genus.[14]

The genus Eos has six species and several subspecies:[15]

Eos, Wagler 1832

Species details

Species of Eos in taxonomic sequence
Common and binomial names[15] Image Description Range
Red-and-blue lory
(Eos histrio)
Eos histrio talautensis 1.jpg
31 cm (12 in) long. Mostly red and blue, with some black on wings and thighs. Blue back and breast. Red above beak. Band of blue plumage over the mid-crown is continuous with blue around the eyes and blue bands that extend downwards to join blue on the back.[2][16] Several subspecies; Talaud Islands, (including the Nanusa Islands), and Sangir Islands of Indonesia[2][6]
Violet-necked lory
(Eos squamata)
Violet Necked Lory.jpg
27 cm (11 in) long. Mostly red and blue with a blue abdomen. Extent of blue neck collar depends on subspecies. Red and black in wings. Purple-red tail.[1] Several subspecies; western Papuan Islands and North Moluccas of Indonesia[1][17]
Red lory
(Eos bornea)
Red Lory (Eos bornea) Jurong Bird Park2-3c.jpg
31 cm (12 in) long. Mostly red and upper body is all red. Red, blue and black markings on back and wings.[2] Several subspecies on islands from South Moluccas to Kai Islands, Indonesia[2][18]
Blue-streaked lory
(Eos reticulata)
Blue-streaked Lory (Eos reticulata).jpg
31 cm (12 in) long. Mostly red with blue streaking over back, and red and black in wings and tail. Blue plumage extends from eyes over ears and partly down neck.[1] Yamdena and Larat of the Tanimbar Islands and also on Babar of the Babar Islands, Indonesia[19]
Black-winged lory
(Eos cyanogenia)
BlackWingedLorikeet.jpg
31 cm (12 in) long.[1] Mostly red with blue plumage around eyes extending back over ears. Black on back, wings, and thighs.[1][20] Geelvink Islands, Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia[7][20]
Blue-eared lory
(Eos semilarvata)
Eos semilarvata -San Diego Zoo-5.jpg
24 cm (9.4 in) long. Mostly red with blue underparts. Blue plumage extends under chin, under eyes, and part way down side of head and neck. Red, blue, and black in wings.[2] Seram, Indonesia[2][21

References

Forshaw (2006). plate 8.
Forshaw (2006). plate 9.
Forshaw (2006). page 28.
Low (1978), p.51
Collar (1997) pages 341-343
BirdLife International (2008). "Eos histrio". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
BirdLife International (2008). "Eos cyanogenia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
"Appendices I, II and III". CITES. 1 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-11-16.
Wagler, Johann Georg (1832). "Monographia Psittacorum". Abhandlungen der mathematisch-physikalischen Classe, Königlich-Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1: 463–750 [494].
Gray, George Robert (1840). A List of the Genera of Birds : with an Indication of the Typical Species of Each Genus. London: R. and J.E. Taylor. p. 52.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger, E. E.; Matsumoto, T.; Eberhard, J. R.; Graves, G. R.; Sanchez, J. J.; Capelli, S.; Muller, H.; Scharpegge, J.; Chambers, G. K.; Fleischer, R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Mol Biol Evol. 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385. PMID 18653733.
Astuti, Dwi; Azuma, Noriko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Higashi, Seigo (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships within parrots (Psittacidae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene sequences". Zoological Science. 23 (2): 191–198. doi:10.2108/zsj.23.191. hdl:2115/54809. PMID 16603811. S2CID 35879495.
Forshaw (1978), p. 50
"Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Psittaciformes (Version 9.020)". www.zoonomen.net. 2009-03-20.
"Species factsheet: Eos histrio". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 21 March 2009.
BirdLife International 2008. Eos squamata. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Downloaded on 20 March 2009.
BirdLife International 2008. Eos bornea. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Downloaded on 20 March 2009.
BirdLife International (2008). "Eos reticulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
"Species factsheet: Eos cyanogenia". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 20 March 2009.

BirdLife International (2008). "Eos semilarvata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2009.

Arndt, Thomas (2007) Lexicon of Parrots. Accessed 31/07/07.

Cited texts

Collar N (1997) "Family Psittacidae (Parrots)" in Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 4; Sandgrouse to Cuckoos (eds del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J) Lynx Edicions:Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9
Forshaw, Joseph M. (2006). Parrots of the World; an Identification Guide. Illustrated by Frank Knight. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09251-6.
Forshaw, Joseph M.; Cooper, William T. (1981) [1973, 1978]. Parrots of the World (corrected second ed.). David & Charles, Newton Abbot, London. ISBN 0-7153-7698-5.
Low, Rosemary. (1978). Lories and Lorikeets. The Brush-Tongued Parrots. Inkata Press: Melbourne. ISBN 0-909605-08-4.

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