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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Apodiformes

Familia: Trochilidae
Subfamilia: Trochilinae
Genus: Oxypogon
Species: O. cyanolaemus – O. guerinii – O. lindenii – O. stuebelii

Oxypogon Gould, 1848

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London Pt16 no.180 p.14
Collar, N.J. & Salaman, P.G.W. 2013. The taxonomic and conservation status of the Oxypogon helmetcrests. Conservación Colombiana 19: 31–38. (Full article (PDF) Reference page.

The bearded helmetcrests (Oxypogon) are a genus of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. They are found in Colombia and Venezuela. Primary natural habitat is subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, known as páramo. The genus contains four species.
Taxonomy and species list

The genus Oxypogon was introduced in 1848 by the English ornithologist John Gould.[1] The type species was subsequently designated as the green-bearded helmetcrest.[2][3] The genus name combines the Ancient Greek oxus meaning "sharp" or "pointed" with pōgōn meaning "beard".[4]

The genus contains four species:[5]

White-bearded helmetcrest, Oxypogon lindenii
Green-bearded helmetcrest, Oxypogon guerinii
Blue-bearded helmetcrest, Oxypogon cyanolaemus
Buffy helmetcrest, Oxypogon stuebelii

These four species were formerly all considered as subspecies of what was known as the bearded helmetcrest (Oxypogon guerinii). The bearded helmetcrest was split into four separate species based on a study of biometric and plumage data published in 2013.[5][6]

A study of mitochondrial DNA of hummingbirds shows it to be most closely related to the bearded mountaineer (Oreonympha nobilis) and the rufous-capped thornbill (Chalcostigma ruficeps). The other member of the genus Chalcostigma lay outside the group, suggesting the genus might need revising in the future.[7]

The most common species, the white-bearded helmetcrest, measures 11.4 cm (4.5 in) in length, it is a small hummingbird with a very small 8 mm (0.31 in) bill. The adult male has a distinctive pointed black crest and a shaggy white beard. The face and cheeks are blackish, rendering a triangular shape with the white fronted crest and white beard. The underparts are a dull green-grey. The female lacks the beard and crest.[8][9]

The species of bearded helmetcrests are found in the Andes, ranging from altitudes of 3,600 to 4,500 m (11,800 to 14,800 ft) in Venezuela,[9] and 3,200 to 5,200 m (10,500 to 17,100 ft) in Colombia.[8] Its main habitat is the páramo, but can descend to the treeline outside of breeding season.[9]

All species often perch on boulders and flit between low-flowering shrubs, visiting the flowers of the genera Espeletia, Echeveria, Siphocampylus, Castilleja and Draba.[9]

All species breed during the rainy season, and nest in the daisy Espeletia or build a nest of material from the daisy in a cliff or bank.[9]

Gould, John (1848). "Drafts for a new arrangement of the Trochilidae". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part 16 (180): 11-14 [14].
Gray, George Robert (1855). Catalogue of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds Contained in the British Museum. London: British Museum. p. 22.
Peters, James Lee, ed. (1945). Check-List of Birds of the World. Volume 5. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 122.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2020). "Hummingbirds". IOC World Bird List Version 10.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
Collar, Nigel J.; Salaman, Paul (2013). "The taxonomic and conservation status of the Oxypogon helmetcrests" (PDF). Conservación Colombiana. 19: 31–38.
McGuire, Jimmy A.; Witt Christopher C.; Remsen, J. V. Jr; Dudley R.; Altshuler, Douglas L. (2008). "A higher-level taxonomy for hummingbird" (PDF). Journal of Ornithology. 150: 155–65. doi:10.1007/s10336-008-0330-x.
Steven L. Hilty; Bill Brown (1986). A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press. p. 295. ISBN 0-691-08372-X. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
Steven L. Hilty; Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee (2003). Birds of Venezuela. Princeton University Press. p. 432. ISBN 0-691-09250-8. Retrieved 12 June 2011.

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