- Art Gallery -

Sericornis frontalis

Sericornis frontalis (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Parvordo: Corvida
Superfamilia: Meliphagoidea
Familia: Pardalotidae
Genus: Sericornis
Species: Sericornis frontalis
Subspecies: S. f. ashbyi - S. f. balstoni - S. f. flindersi - S. f. frontalis - S. f. gularis - S. f. harteri - S. f. hebertoni - S. f. insularis - S. f. laevigaster - S. f. longirostris - S. f. maculatus - S. f. mellori - S. f. mondraini - S. f. osculans - S. f. rosinae - S. f. tweedi

Name

Sericornis frontalis (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)

Reference

Transactions of the Linnean Society of London (1) 15(1826) p.226

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Deutsch: Weißbrauensericornis
English: White-browed Scrubwren
Français: Séricorne à sourcils blancs
Magyar: Fehértorkú ausztrálposzáta

The White-browed Scrubwren (Sericornis frontalis) is a passerine bird found in coastal areas of Australia. Placed in the family Pardalotidae in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, this has met with opposition and indeed is now known to be wrong; they rather belong to the independent family Acanthizidae.

It is insectivorous and inhabits undergrowth, from which it rarely ventures, though can be found close to urban areas. It is 11–14 cm (5-6 in) long and predominantly brown in colour with prominent white brows and pale eyes, though the three individual subspecies vary widely. Found in small groups, it is sedentary and engages in cooperative breeding. The larger Tasmanian Scrubwren is sometimes considered a subspecies of this species.


Taxonomy

The White-browed Scrubwren was originally described by naturalists Nicholas Aylward Vigors and Thomas Horsfield in 1827. The specific epithet frontalis derived from the Latin frons "eyebrow".[1] It is now divided into three subspecies:

* S. f. frontalis, known as the White-browed Scrubwren, is found in coastal eastern Australia from the New South Wales-Queensland border round to Adelaide in South Australia.
* S. f. laevigaster, known as the Buff-breasted Scrubwren, is found in coastal Queensland from the New South Wales border north to the Atherton Tableland.
* S. f. maculatus, known as the Spotted Scrubwren, occurs in coastal southern Australia, from Kangaroo Island and Adelaide westwards to Shark Bay in Western Australia. It is known to intergrade with the nominate subspecies where their ranges overlap.[2]

The Scrubwrens by Neville William Cayley, including S. humilis on the right.

S. humilis, the Tasmanian Scrubwren, is found in Tasmania and Bass Strait islands and sometimes considered a subspecies of the White-browed Scrubwren. It is larger at 13.5 cm long and lays larger eggs.

Description

Mainland birds measure 11.5 cm (4½ in) in length and olive brown upperparts (greyish brown in the spotted subspecies and dark brown in Tasmania), with prominent pale irises and a white brow. The throat is white with faint streaks in the subspecies frontalis and laevigaster and heavily spotted in maculatus. Ear coverts are grey in frontalis and black in laevigaster, and brownish in the other two subspecies. The underparts are pale, though buff in laevigaster. The thin bill is black. The Females are duller overall and generally have pale gray lores, whereas males have blackish lores. This allows most individuals to be reliably sexed in the field. The call is a loud high-pitched ts-cheer.[3]

Distribution and habitat

The species favours forested or scrubby areas with plentiful undergrowth, from which it rarely ventures. It is a common bird in bushland areas around Sydney.[4] It is sedentary.

Behaviour

Scrubwrens are predominantly insectivorous. They can be hard to spot but are very vocal and easy to localise. They occur in small groups of up to six birds and engage in cooperative breeding; namely that group members all help to feed and rear the young.[5]

Reproduction

Breeding season is June or July to November or December, with the nest a domelike structure of dried grasses and leaves, sticks, bark and ferns and feathers for lining. It is placed near or on the ground in dense cover. A clutch of two or three 20 x 15 mm eggs is laid; they vary from brownish-violet to brownish-white in colour with darker spots or blotches. The Tasmanian Scrubwren lays larger eggs some 23 x 17 mm in dimensions.[6]

References

1. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd.. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
2. ^ Condon, HT (1951). "Notes on the birds of South Australia: occurrence, distribution and taxonomy". J. Aust. Ornithol. 20: 26–68.
3. ^ Simpson K, Day N, Trusler P (1993). Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. Ringwood, Victoria: Viking O'Neil. p. 392. ISBN 0-670-90478-3.
4. ^ Roberts, Peter (1993). Birdwatcher's Guide to the Sydney Region. Kenthurst, New South Wales: Kangaroo Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-86417-565-5.
5. ^ Bell, HL (1983). "Cooperative Breeding by the White-browed Scrubwren Sericornis frontalis" (PDF). Emu 82 (supplement): 315–16. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=MU9820315s.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
6. ^ Beruldsen, G (2003). Australian Birds: Their Nests and Eggs. Kenmore Hills, Qld: self. pp. 295–96. ISBN 0-646-42798-9.

* BirdLife International (2004). Sericornis frontalis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern

Biology Encyclopedia

Birds Images

Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License