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Trogon surrucura

Trogon surrucura (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Trogoniformes

Familia: Trogonidae
Genus: Trogon
Species: Trogon surrucura
Subspecies: T. s. aurantius - T. s. surrucura
Name

Trogon surrucura Vieillot, 1817
References

Vieillot, L.J.P. 1817. Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l'agriculture, à l'économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc. Par une société de naturalistes et d'agriculteurs. Avec des figures tirées des trois règnes de la nature. Tome 8. 610 pp. +10 tt. Déterville, Paris. p.321 BHLReference page.

Vernacular names
English: Surucua Trogon
español: Trogon surucuá
português: Surucuá-variado

The Surucua trogon (Trogon surrucura) is a species of bird in the family Trogonidae, the quetzals and trogons. It is found in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.[3]

Taxonomy and systematics

The International Ornithological Committee (IOC) and the Clements taxonomy recognize two subspecies of Surucua trogon, the nominate T. s. surrucura and T. s. aurantius. BirdLife International's Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) treats these two forms as separate species, the "southern" and "northern" Surucua trogons respectively.[3][4][5]
Description

The nominate subspecies T. s. surrucura is 26 to 28 cm (10 to 11 in) long and weighs 56.3 to 78 g (2.0 to 2.8 oz). The male has a blackish face and throat with an orange ring around the eye. The crown, neck, and breast are royal blue and the back a coppery green that transitions to turquoise-green on the upperside of the tail. The folded wing has fine vermiculation that looks gray at a distance. The belly is pinkish red and the flanks gray. The underside of the tail is white with a black bar across the end. The female is mostly gray with the red of the belly beginning lower. Instead of the orange ring around the eye there are small white spots before and after it. The underside of the tail has a black and white pattern. T. s. aurantius is about 28 cm (11 in) long. The male differs from the nominate by having a yellow eye ring and an orange belly. The female's belly is yellowish white to orange-yellow.[6]
Distribution and habitat

The nominate subspecies of Surucua trogan is found from eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina east into Uruguay and in Brazil as far north as southeastern Tocantins. T. s. aurantius has a more restricted range in east central and eastern Brazil from Bahia south to São Paulo state. They inhabit the mid levels of primary and well-developed secondary forest and semideciduous woodland. T. s. aurantius often associates with bamboo. T. s. surrucura occurs as high as 1,150 m (3,800 ft) in Bahia, 1,550 m (5,100 ft) in Minas Gerais, and higher still in Rio de Janeiro state. T. s. aurantius occurs up to about 2,000 m (6,600 ft).[6]

Behavior
Migration

The more northerly T. s. aurantius appears to be a year round resident in its range. T. s. surrucura is mostly sedentary but the southernmost birds move north for the austral winter.[6]
Feeding

The Surucua trogon's diet includes a wide variety of insects, both adults and larva, and also fruits and occasionally flowers. It sometimes joins mixed-species foraging flocks.[6]
Breeding

The Surucua trogon's breeding season spans from September to December and possibly into January. The nest is a cavity in a decayed tree or an arboreal termite nest. The one described clutch contained three eggs.[6]

Dickcissel male perched on a metal pole singing, with neck stretched and beak open.

Songs and calls
Listen to Surucua trogon on xeno-canto
Vocalization

The Surucua trogon's song is "an ascending sequence of moderately high-pitched, 14–20 full 'diu' or 'kwa' notes, which increase slightly in amplitude". It makes a "kiarr" warning call.[6]
Status

The IUCN follows HBW taxonomy and so treats the southern and northern Surucua trogons separtately. It assesses both as being of Least Concern. The population of neither has been quantified but both are believed to be decreasing.[1][2] Both subspecies are found in several protected areas but outside them are known to be affected by forest fragmentation.[6]
References

BirdLife International (2016). "Southern Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
BirdLife International (2016). "Northern Surucua Trogon Trogon aurantius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
Gill, F.; Donsker, D.; Rasmussen, P. (July 2021). "IOC World Bird List (v 11.2)". Retrieved July 14, 2021.
Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, S. M. Billerman, T. A. Fredericks, J. A. Gerbracht, D. Lepage, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2021. The eBird/Clements checklist of Birds of the World: v2021. Downloaded from https://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/ Retrieved August 25, 2021
HBW and BirdLife International (2020) Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world Version 5. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v5_Dec20.zip [.xls zipped 1 MB] retrieved May 27, 2021
Collar, N., J. del Hoyo, and G. M. Kirwan (2020). Surucua Trogon (Trogon surrucura), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (S. M. Billerman, B. K. Keeney, P. G. Rodewald, and T. S. Schulenberg, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.surtro1.01 retrieved October 25, 2021

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