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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Liliales

Familia: Liliaceae
Subfamilia: Calochortoideae
Genus: Calochortus
Sectiones: (3)
C. sect. Calochortus – C. sect. Cyclobothra – C. sect. Mariposa

Name

Calochortus Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 240 (1814)

Type species: Calochortus elegans Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 240 (1814)

Synonymy

Heterotypic
Cyclobothra D.Don in R.Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 3: t. 273. (1828)
Mariposa (Alph.Wood) Hoover, Leafl. W. Bot. 4: 1. (1944)

Species overview

Species: (74)
C. albus – C. amabilis – C. ambiguus – C. amoenus – C. apiculatus – C. argillosus – C. aureus – C. balsensis – C. barbatus – C. bruneaunis – C. catalinae – C. cernuus – C. ciscoensis – C. clavatus – C. coeruleus – C. concolor – C. coxii – C. dunnii – C. elegans – C. eurycarpus – C. excavatus – C. exilis – C. fimbriatus – C. flexuosus – C. foliosus – C. fuscus – C. ghiesbreghtii – C. greenei – C. gunnisonii – C. hartwegii – C. howellii – C. invenustus – C. kennedyi – C. leichtlinii – C. longibarbatus – C. luteus – C. lyallii – C. macrocarpus – C. marcellae – C. mendozae – C. minimus – C. monanthus – C. monophyllus – C. nigrescens – C. nitidus – C. nudus – C. nuttallii – C. obispoensis – C. palmeri – C. panamintensis – C. persistens – C. plummerae – C. pringlei – C. pulchellus – C. purpureus – C. raichei – C. rustvoldii – C. simulans – C. spatulatus – C. splendens – C. striatus – C. subalpinus – C. superbus – C. syntrophus – C. tiburonensis – C. tolmiei – C. umbellatus – C. umpquaensis – C. uniflorus – C. venustulus – C. venustus – C. vestae – C. weedii – C. westonii

Nothospecies: (1)
C. × indecorus
Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Northern America
Western Canada
Alberta, British Columbia,
Northwestern U.S.A.
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming,
North-Central U.S.A.
North Dakota, Nebraska, South Dakota,
Southwestern U.S.A.
Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah,
South-Central U.S.A.
New Mexico, Texas,
Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast,
Southern America
Central America
Guatemala.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References
Primary references

Pursh, F.T. 1814. Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America 1: 240.

Additional references

Ownbey, F.M. 1940. A monograph of the genus Calochortus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 27: 371-560 BHL
Patterson, T.B. & Givnish, T.J. (2003). Geographic cohesion, chromosomal evolution, parallel adaptive radiations, and consequent floral adaptations in Calochortus (Calochortaceae): evidence from a cpDNA phylogeny. New Phytologist 161(1): 253–264 PDF

Links

Emonocot.org 2018. Calochortus in The Orders and Families of Monocotyledons. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 September 8.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Calochortus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 September 8. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Calochortus. Published online. Accessed: 8 September 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Calochortus in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 September 8.
Tropicos.org 2018. Calochortus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 September 8.

Vernacular names

български: Калохортус
Deutsch: Mormonentulpen
English: Mariposa lily
latviešu: Tauriņlilijas
polski: Trójednik
русский: Калохортус
українська: Калохортус

Calochortus /ˌkæləˈkɔːrtəs, -loʊ-/[3][4] is a genus of flowering plants in the lily family. The group includes herbaceous, perennial and bulbous species, all native to North America (primarily the Western United States).[5][6]

The genus Calochortus includes mariposas (or mariposa lilies) with open wedge-shaped petals, globe lilies and fairy lanterns with globe-shaped flowers, and cat's ears and star tulips with erect pointed petals. The word Calochortus is derived from Greek and means "beautiful grass".[5]

Description

Calochortus produce one or more flowers on a stem that arises from the bulb, generally in the spring or early summer. Unlike most other Liliaceae, Calochortus petals differ in size and color from their sepals.[7] Flowers can be white, yellow, pink, purple, bluish, or streaked. The insides of the petals are often very 'hairy'. These hairs, along with the nectaries, are often used in distinguishing species from each other.[5]

Species[2][8][9][10][11]

  • Calochortus albus white globelily - CA, Baja California
  • Calochortus amabilis short lily - CA
  • Calochortus ambiguus doubting mariposa lily - UT AZ NM Sonora
  • Calochortus amoenus purple globelily - CA
  • Calochortus apiculatus pointedtip mariposa lily - British Columbia, Alberta, WA OR ID MT WY
  • Calochortus argillosus - CA
  • Calochortus aureus golden mariposa lily - UT CO AZ NM
  • Calochortus balsensis - Oaxaca, Guerrero
  • Calochortus barbatus yellow globe lily - from Chihuahua to Oaxaca
  • Calochortus bruneaunis Bruneau mariposa lily - CA OR NV UT ID MT
  • Calochortus catalinae Santa Catalina mariposa lily — (threatened by development) CA
  • Calochortus cernuus - Morelos
  • Calochortus ciscoensis - UT
  • Calochortus clavatus clubhair mariposa lily - CA
    • Calochortus clavatus var. avius -rare,
    • Calochortus clavatus var. gracilis
    • Calochortus clavatus ssp. clavatus
    • Calochortus clavatus ssp. pallidus
    • Calochortus clavatus ssp. recurvifoliusrare
  • Calochortus coeruleus beavertail grass - CA
  • Calochortus concolor goldenbowl mariposa lily - CA, Baja California
  • Calochortus coxii Cox's mariposa lily - OR
  • Calochortus dunnii Dunn's mariposa lily — rare - CA, Baja California
  • Calochortus elegans northwestern mariposa lily; star tulip - CA OR WA ID MT
    • Calochortus elegans var. elegans elegant mariposa lily
    • Calochortus elegans var. nanus
    • Calochortus elegans var. oreophilus elegant mariposa lily
    • Calochortus elegans var. selwayensis Selway mariposa lily
  • Calochortus eurycarpus white mariposa lily - OR WA NV ID MT WY
  • Calochortus excavatus Inyo mariposa lily — (threatened by groundwater development) - CA
  • Calochortus exilis - Hidalgo
  • Calochortus fimbriatus late-blooming mariposa lily — rare - CA
  • Calochortus flexuosus winding mariposa lily - CA NV UT CO AZ NM Baja California, Sonora
  • Calochortus foliosus - Michoacán
  • Calochortus fuscus - Mexico
  • Calochortus greenei Green's mariposa lily — rare - CA OR
  • Calochortus ghiesbreghtii - Mexico, Guatemala
  • Calochortus gunnisonii Gunnison's mariposa lily - ID MT WY SD NE CO UT AZ NM
    • Calochortus gunnisonii var. gunnisonii
    • Calochortus gunnisonii var. perpulcher
  • Calochortus hartwegii - Aguascalientes, Nayarit, Jalisco
  • Calochortus howellii Howell's mariposa lily - OR
  • Calochortus indecorus Sexton Mountain mariposa lily - OR - extinct
  • Calochortus invenustus plain mariposa lily - CA NV
  • Calochortus kennedyi desert mariposa lily - CA NV AZ Sonora, Chihuahua
    • Calochortus kennedyi var. kennedyi
    • Calochortus kennedyi var. munzii
  • Calochortus leichtlinii smokey mariposa - CA NV OR
  • Calochortus longibarbatus longbeard mariposa lily - CA OR WA
    • Calochortus longibarbatus var. longibarbatus — (threatened by grazing)
    • Calochortus longibarbatus var. peckii
  • Calochortus luteus yellow mariposa lily - CA
  • Calochortus lyallii Lyall's mariposa lily - WA, British Columbia
  • Calochortus macrocarpus sagebrush mariposa lily - CA NV OR WA ID MT, British Columbia
    • Calochortus macrocarpus var. macrocarpus
    • Calochortus macrocarpus var. maculosus Nez Perce mariposa lily
  • Calochortus marcellae - Nuevo León, Coahuila, Tamaulipas
  • Calochortus mendozae - Querétaro, San Luis Potosí
  • Calochortus minimus Sierran mariposa lily - CA
  • Calochortus monanthus Shasta River mariposa lily — CA (presumed extinct)
  • Calochortus monophyllus yellow startulip - CA OR
  • Calochortus nigrescens - Oaxaca
  • Calochortus nitidus broadfruit mariposa lily - WA OR ID
  • Calochortus nudus naked mariposa lily - CA OR
  • Calochortus nuttallii sego lily, (state flower of Utah) - ND SD NE MT ID CO UT NV AZ NM
  • Calochortus obispoensis San Luis mariposa lily - CA
  • Calochortus palmeri Palmer's mariposa lily - CA
    • Calochortus palmeri var. munzii Munz's mariposa lily
    • Calochortus palmeri var. palmeri — rare
  • Calochortus panamintensis Panamint Mountain mariposa lily — rare ca NV
  • Calochortus persistens Siskiyou mariposa lily — rare - CA OR
  • Calochortus plummerae Plummer's mariposa lily — rare - CA
  • Calochortus pringlei - Morelos, Puebla, Jalisco, Oaxaca
  • Calochortus pulchellus Mount Diablo globelily - CA
  • Calochortus raichei Cedars mariposa lily - CA
  • Calochortus simulans San Luis Obispo mariposa lily - CA
  • Calochortus spatulatus - Mexico
  • Calochortus splendens splendid mariposa lily - CA, Baja California
  • Calochortus striatus alkali mariposa lily - CA NV
  • Calochortus subalpinus subalpine mariposa lily, Cascade mariposa lily, cat's ear lily - WA OR
  • Calochortus superbus superb mariposa - CA
  • Calochortus syntrophus Callahan's mariposa lily - CA
  • Calochortus tiburonensis Tiburon mariposa - CA
  • Calochortus tolmiei Tolmie's star-tulip, hairy pussy ears - CA OR WA
  • Calochortus umbellatus Oakland mariposa lily - CA
  • Calochortus umpquaensis Umpqua mariposa lily - OR
  • Calochortus uniflorus mariposa 'Cupido' - CA OR
  • Calochortus venustulus - Mexico
  • Calochortus venustus butterfly mariposa, white mariposa - CA
  • Calochortus vestae Vesta's mariposa, Coast Range mariposa - CA
  • Calochortus weedii Weed's mariposa - CA, Baja Calilfornia
  • Calochortus westonii Shirley Meadow star-tulip, Weston's mariposa - CA

Distribution and habitat

The genus Calochortus includes approximately 70 species distributed from southwestern British Columbia, through California and Mexico, to northern Guatemala and eastwards to New Mexico, Nebraska and the Dakotas. Calochortus is the most widely dispersed genus of Liliaceae on the North American Pacific Coast.[7] Of these, 28 species are endemic to California.[12]

In 1998, T.B. Patterson conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the genus, dividing it into seven main clades. The study indicated highly localized speciation, so that different clades were strongly linked to specific habitats, as follows:[13]

Mariposas: dry grasslands, open chaparral, semideserts
Star-tulips: wet meadows
Cat's ears: montane woodlands
Fairy lanterns: oak woodlands, closed forests.

Uses

Culinary

The bulbs of many species were eaten by Native Americans.[14] These bulbs were eaten raw or gathered in the fall and boiled, and the flower buds when young and fresh.[14] They were eaten by the Mormon settlers between 1853 and 1858 when famine threatened new immigrants in the Great Salt Lake Valley, due to crop failures.

Native Americans called Calochortus "sego". They used it as food, in ceremonies and as a traditional medicinal plant.[14]

Cultivation

Some Calochortus species are cultivated as ornamental plants by specialty nurseries and botanic gardens to sell.[15] The bulbs are planted for their flowers, in traditional, native plant, and wildlife gardens; in rock gardens; and in potted container gardens for those needing unwatered Summer dormancy.
See also

List of plants known as lily

Notes

Tropicos, Calochortus Pursh
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
"Calochortus". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
Flora of North America, Vol. 26 Page 119 Calochortus Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 240. 1814.
Pursh, Frederick Traugott. 1813. Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North America. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years travels and residence in that country 1: 240 in English and Latin
Dale, Nancy; Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains, Capra Press, 1986; pg. 28
Gerritsen, Mary E and Parsons, R. Calochortus. Mariposa Lilies and Their Relatives. Timber Press, 2007.
Biota of North America Program 2034 county distribution maps
Espejo Serena, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1994). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(3): 1-74. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F..
Gerritsen, M.E. & Parsons, R. (2007). Calochortus: Mariposa lilies & their relatives: 1-232. Timber press, Inc. Portland, U.S.A.
USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service, Plant Profile for Calochortus Pursh; Data contributed by John K. Kartesz and USDA-NRCS National Plant Data Center
P. L. Fiedler & R. K. Zebell, Flora of North America; 18. Calochortus Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 240. 1814.
"University of Michigan at Dearborn, Native American Ethnobotany: Calochortus". Archived from the original on 2013-12-04. Retrieved 2015-04-17.

Telos Rare Bulbs Nursery database: Calochortus

References

"Calochortus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Treatment from the Jepson Manual (TJM93)
Gerritsen, Mary E and Parsons, R. Calochortus. Mariposa Lilies and Their Relatives. Timber Press, 2007.
Pacific Bulb Society

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