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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Gesneriaceae
Subfamilia: Gesnerioideae
Tribus: BeslerieaeCoronanthereaeGesnerieaeNapeantheaeTitanotricheae

Name

Gesnerioideae Burnett, Outlines Bot. 959, 1095, 1108. 1835.

Type genus: Gesneria L.

References
Primary references

Burnett, G.T. 1835. Outlines of Botany, including a general history of the vegetable kingdom. Vol. 1–2, 1190 pp., London: John Churchill. Archive.org Reference page. : 959, 1095, 1108.

Links

Clark, J.L., Funke, M.M., Duffy, A.M. & Smith, J.F. 2012. Phylogeny of a Neotropical clade in the Gesneriaceae: more tales of convergent evolution. International Journal of Plant Sciences 173(8): 894-916. DOI: 10.1086/667229 Paywall PDF Reference page.
Clark J.L., Skog L.E., Boggan J.K. & Ginzbarg, S. 2020. Index to names of New World members of the Gesneriaceae (subfamilies Sanangoideae and Gesnerioideae). Rheedea: Official Journal of Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy 30(1): 190-256. DOI: 10.22244/rheedea.2020.30.01.14 PDF Reference page.
Roalson, E.H., Boggan, J.K. & Skog, L.E. 2005. Reorganization of tribal and generic boundaries in the Gloxinieae (Gesneriaceae: Gesnerioideae) and the description of a new tribe in the Gesnerioideae, Sphaerorrhizeae. Selbyana 25(2): 225–238. JSTOR Paywall PDF. Reference page.
Weber, A., Clark, J.L. & Möller, M. 2013. A new formal classification of Gesneriaceae, Selbyana 31: 68-94. PDF ResearchGate Reference page.
Weber, A., Middleton, D.J. & Clark, J.L. 2020. Keys to the infrafamilial taxa and genera of Gesneriaceae. Rheedia: Journal of the Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy 30(1): 05-47. DOI: 10.22244/rheedea.2020.30.01.02 PDF Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Gesneriads

The Gesnerioideae are a subfamily of plants in the family Gesneriaceae: based on the type genus Gesneria. Although genera typically originate in the New World, some species have become widely distributed as ornamental plants.

Description

Gesnerioideae is one of two main subfamilies in the Gesneriaceae, the other being Didymocarpoideae. (The third subfamily, Sanangoideae, contains only the genus Sanango.) Gesnerioideae seedlings have normal cotyledons of the same size and shape (isocotylous), whereas the cotyledons of Didymocarpoideae are usually, but not always, eventually different in size and shape (anisocotylous). Gesnerioideae flowers usually have four fertile stamens, rarely two or five. In other respects, Gesnerioideae species are very variable. The ovary may be superior, semi-inferior or inferior, and the fruit takes various forms.[2]
Taxonomy

The original use of the name for the subfamily is attributed to Gilbert Thomas Burnett in 1835.[1][2] Burnett divided his circumscription of the family Gesneriaceae into "Besleridae" and "Gesneridae". The latter was distinguished by having an inferior or semi-inferior ovary and the calyx adhering to the gynoecium ("germen").[3] However, Burnett's circumscription of the family and subfamilies was very different to the modern conception. He placed the "Didymocarpidae" (a name which corresponds to the modern Didymocarpoideae), not in Gesneriaceae, but in Acanthaceae.[4] Since about 1997, phylogenetic studies, mostly based on molecular approaches, have resulted in major changes to the traditional taxonomy and classification of the family Gesneriaceae, at every level from genus upwards.[2]
Tribes and genera

A classification published in 2020 divides the subfamily into five tribes.[2]

Tribe Titanotricheae

Titanotrichum

Tribe Napeantheae

Napeanthus

Tribe Beslerieae

Anetanthus
Besleria
Cremosperma
Cremospermopsis
Gasteranthus
Reldia
Resia
Shuaria
Tylopsacas

Tribe Coronanthereae

Asteranthera
Coronanthera
Depanthus
Fieldia, including Lenbrassia
Mitraria
Negria
Rhabdothamnus
Sarmienta

Tribe Gesnerieae

Achimenes
Alloplectus
Alsobia
Amalophyllon
Bellonia
Centrosolenia
Chautemsia
Christopheria
Chrysothemis
Cobananthus
Codonanthe
Codonanthopsis
Columnea
Corytoplectus
Crantzia
Cremersia
Diastema
Drymonia
Episcia
Eucodonia
Gesneria
Glossoloma
Gloxinella
Gloxinia
Gloxiniopsis
Goyazia
Heppiella
Kohleria
Lampadaria
Lembocarpus
Lesia
Mandirola
Monopyle
Moussonia
Nautilocalyx
Nematanthus
Neomortonia
Niphaea
Nomopyle
Oerstedina
Pachycaulos
Pagothyra
Paliavana
Paradrymonia
Pearcea
Pheidonocarpa
Phinaea
Rhoogeton
Rhytidophyllum
Rufodorsia
Seemannia
Sinningia
Smithiantha
Solenophora
Sphaerorrhiza
Trichodrymonia
Vanhouttea

Distribution

With the exception of the genus Titanotrichum, which is native to eastern Asia, all the species of the subfamily Gesnerioideae are native from Central and South America through the southwest Pacific to Australia.[2]
References

Reveal, James L. (2011) [onwards], "Gesnerioideae", Indices Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium, Plant Biology section, Cornell University, retrieved 2021-04-14
Weber, A.; Middleton, D.J.; Clark, J.L. & Möller, M. (2020), "Keys to the infrafamilial taxa and genera of Gesneriaceae", Rheedea, 30 (1): 5–47, doi:10.22244/rheedea.2020.30.01.02
Burnett, Gilbert T. (1835), Outlines of Botany, vol. II, London: John Churchill, OCLC 1017285083, retrieved 2021-04-14, pp. 959, 1095, 1108
Burnett (1835), pp. 963–964.

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