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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Lamioideae
Tribus: Lamieae
Genus: Lamium
Subgenera: L. subg. Galeobdolon – L. subg. Lamium – L. subg. Orvala
Overview of species

L. albumL. amplexicaule – L. bakhtiaricum – L. bifidum – L. bilgilii – L. caucasicum – L. confertum – L. coutinhoi – L. cyrneum – L. demirizii – L. eriocephalum – L. flexuosum – L. galactophyllum – L. galeobdolon – L. garganicum – L. gevorense – L. glaberrimum – L. macrodon – L. maculatumL. moschatum – L. multifidum – L. orientale – L. orvala – L. persepolitanum – L. purpureum – L. taiwanense – L. tomentosum – L. tschorochense – L. vreemanii
Nothospecies

L. × holsaticum – L. × schroeteri

Name

Lamium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 579. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 252. 1754.

Lectotype species (designated by N.L. Britton & A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2. 3: 121. 1913): Lamium purpureum L. (invalid; Art. 10.6 ICN)
Lectotype species (designated by M.L. Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 165. Aug 1929): Lamium album L.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Galeobdolon Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 190. 1763, nom. illeg.
Lamiastrum Heist. ex Fabr., Enum. 51. 1759.
Lamiella Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon sér. 2, 17: 134. 1869.
Lamiopsis (Dumort.) Opiz, Seznam 56. 1852.
Orvala L., Sp. Pl. 2: 578. 1753.
Pollichia Schrank, Act. Erford. 3: 35. 1782, nom. rej. non Aiton (1789, nom. cons.).
Psilopsis Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 319. 1790, nom. inval. opus utiq. oppr.
Wiedemannia Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Index Seminum (St. Petersburg) 4: 51. 1837.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Europe
Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Føroyar, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sweden,
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland,
Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain,
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia,
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine,
Africa
Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia,
Macaronesia
Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira,
Northeast Tropical Africa
Ethiopia,
Asia-Temperate
Siberia
Altay, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya,
Russian Far East
Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorye, Sakhalin,
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan,
Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus,
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey,
Arabian Peninsula
Saudi Arabia,
China
China South-Central, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, China North-Central, Qinghai, China Southeast, Tibet, Xinjiang,
Mongolia
Mongolia,
Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea, Nansei-shoto, Ogasawara-shoto, Taiwan,
Asia-Tropical
Indian Subcontinent
East Himalaya, Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 579. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 252. Reference page.

Additional references

Bendiksby, M., Thorbek, L., Scheen, A.-C., Lindqvist, C. & Ryding, P.O. 2011. An updated phylogeny and classification of Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae. Taxon 60(2): 471–484. DOI: 10.1002/tax.602015 ResearchGate Reference page.
Bendiksby, M., Brysting, A.K., Thorbek, L., Gusarova, G.L. & Ryding, P.O. 2011. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Lamium L. (Lamiaceae): Disentangling origins of presumed allotetraploids. Taxon 60(4): 986–1000. DOI: 10.1002/tax.604004 JSTOR ResearchGate Reference page.
Bendiksby, M., Salmaki, Y., Bräuchler, C. & Ryding, P.O. 2014. The generic position of Stachys tibetica Vatke and amalgamation of the genera Eriophyton and Stachyopsis (Lamiaceae subfam. Lamioideae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 300(5): 961–971. DOI: 10.1007/s00606-013-0935-2 ResearchGate Reference page.
Britton, N.L. & Brown, A. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. ed. 2. C. Scribner's sons, New York. Vol. 3: 121. Reference page.
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.
Jarvis, C.E. 2007. Order out of Chaos: Linnaean Plant Names and their Types. London: Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, ISBN 978-0-9506207-7-0, p. 611. Reference page.
Mennema, J. 1989. A taxonomic revision of Lamium (Lamiaceae). Leiden Botanical Series 11: 1–196. PDF Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Lamium in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 2. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Lamium. Published online. Accessed: June 2 2014.
Tropicos.org 2014. Lamium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 2.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Lamium in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2019 Mar 5.

Vernacular names
العربية: لاميون
azərbaycanca: Dalamaz
беларуская: Яснотка
български: Мъртва коприва
čeština: hluchavka
dansk: Tvetand
Deutsch: Taubnesseln
dolnoserbski: Tupa kopśiwa
English: Deadnettle
eesti: Iminõges
suomi: Peipit
français: Lamier
Frysk: Sûchnettel
Gaeilge: Caochneantóg
עברית: נזמית
hornjoserbsce: Cycawka
magyar: Árvacsalán
日本語: オドリコソウ属
ქართული: ბებრისკონა
қазақша: Тауқалақай
kurdî: Hingivîn
lietuvių: Notrelė
Nederlands: Dovenetel
polski: Jasnota
русский: Яснотка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mrtva kopriva
slovenčina: hluchavka
српски / srpski: Мртва коприва
svenska: Plistersläktet
Türkçe: Ballıbaba
українська: Глуха кропива
中文: 野芝麻属

Lamium (dead-nettles) is a genus of about 40–50 species of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae,[3] of which it is the type genus. They are all herbaceous plants native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa, but several have become very successful weeds of crop fields and are now widely naturalised across much of the temperate world.[2][4][5]

Description

The genus includes both annual and perennial species; they spread by both seeds and stems rooting as they grow along the ground. They have square stems[6] and coarsely textured pairs of leaves, often with striking patterns or variegation. They produce double-lipped flowers in a wide range of colours.[7]

The common name "dead-nettle" has been derived from the German taube-nessel ("deaf nettle", or "nettle without a kernel"),[8] and refers to the resemblance of Lamium album[9] to the very distantly related stinging nettles, but unlike those, they do not have stinging hairs and so are harmless or apparently "dead".

Several closely related genera were formerly included in Lamium by some botanists, including Galeopsis (hemp-nettles) and Leonurus (motherworts).

Cultivation

Lamium species are widely cultivated as groundcover, and numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use.[7] They are frost hardy and grow well in most soils. Flower colour determines planting season and light requirement: white- and purple-coloured flowered species are planted in spring and prefer full sun. The yellow-flowered ones are planted in fall (autumn) and prefer shade. They often have invasive habits and need plenty of room.

Ecology
Scanograph of Lamium moschatum

Lamium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including angle shades, setaceous Hebrew character and the Coleophora case-bearers C. ballotella, C. lineolea and C. ochripennella.

Species[2]

Lamium album L. – (white dead-nettle) – widespread across Europe + northern Asia from Spain + Norway to Japan + Kamchatka; naturalized in New Zealand + North America
Lamium amplexicaule L. – (henbit dead-nettle) – widespread across Europe and northern Asia from Spain + Norway to Japan + Kamchatka, as well as North Africa, Ethiopia, Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands; naturalized in New Zealand, Hawaii, South America + North America
Lamium bifidum Cirillo – Mediterranean from Portugal to Romania
Lamium caucasicum Grossh. – Caucasus (southern European Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan)
Lamium confertum Fr. – northern Europe from Ireland to northern Russia; naturalized in Greenland + Iceland
Lamium coutinhoi J.G.García – Portugal
Lamium demirizii A.P.Khokhr. – Turkey
Lamium eriocephalum Benth. – Turkey
Lamium flexuosum Ten. – Spain, France, Italy, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia
Lamium galactophyllum Boiss. & Reut. – Turkey
Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L. – northern + central Europe and western Asia from Spain + Denmark east to Iran + Western Siberia; naturalized in New Zealand + Madeira
Lamium garganicum L. – Mediterranean + western Asia from Portugal to Kazakhstan + Saudi Arabia
Lamium gevorense (Gómez Hern.) Gómez Hern. & A.Pujadas – Spain, Portugal, Corsica
Lamium glaberrimum (K.Koch) Taliev – Crimea
Lamium × holsaticum Prahl – central Europe (L. album × L. maculatum)
Lamium macrodon Boiss. & A.Huet – Turkey, Caucasus, Syria, Iran, Iraq
Lamium maculatum (L.) L. – (spotted white dead-nettle, purple dragon) – Europe + Middle East from Portugal to Turkey; also Gansu + Xinjiang Provinces of western China
Lamium moluccellifolium (northern dead-nettle)
Lamium moschatum Mill. – eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Cyprus)
Lamium multifidum L. – Turkey, Caucasus
Lamium orientale (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) E.H.L.Krause – Turkey, Syria, Palestine
Lamium orvala L. – Austria, Italy, Hungary, Slovenia
Lamium purpureum L. (red dead-nettle) – northern + central Europe and western Asia from Spain + Denmark east to Caucasus + Siberia; naturalized in Korea, Taiwan, North America, New Zealand, Argentina, Falkland Islands
Lamium taiwanense S.S.Ying – Taiwan
Lamium tomentosum Willd. – Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Iraq
Lamium vreemanii A.P.Khokhr. – Turkey

References

Carl Linnaeus (1753) Species Plantarum, p. 579.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant families
http://pss.uvm.edu/pss123/perlam.html
Altervista Flora Italiana, Genere Lamium includes photos and distribution maps for Europe and North America
Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 157 野芝麻属 ye zhi ma shu Lamium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 579. 1753.
Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. p. 355. Cork University Press. ISBN 978-185918-4783
RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1855). "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society (6): 70.
Brown, V. K.; Lawton, J. H.; Grubb, P. J. (29 August 1991). "Herbivory and the Evolution of Leaf Size and Shape [and Discussion]". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 333 (1267): 265–272. doi:10.1098/rstb.1991.0076. "... appearance of vegetative plants of white dead-nettles (Lamium album) (Labiatae) bear a close resemblance to stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) (Urticaceae). Stinging hairs deter soft-muzzled, grazing mammals, suggesting that dead-nettles are harmless Batesian mimics. However, many other labiates that do not closely mimic nettles have ovate leaves with serrate margins, so if this is a case of true mimicry, it may have involved rather little modification in leaf shape. ..."

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