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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Helianthinae
Genus: Pappobolus
Species: P. imbaburensis

Pappobolus S.F.Blake

Pappobolus is a genus of flowering plant in the sunflower family native to the Andes Mountains of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.[2][3]

Pappobolus is distinguished from closely related genera by its combination of shrubby habit and usually caducous pappus. Within the genus there is considerable variation in the pappus, a structure that has traditionally been considered a key to defining genera in Asteraceae, and this led to earlier confusion in defining the genus. Most of the species of the genus were originally described as members of Helianthus, based on having a pappus of two caducous awns. When it was recognized that they were not part of the exclusively North American Helianthus, they were transferred to a genus called Helianthopsis.[4] The prominent synantherologist S.F.Blake, however, much earlier named the genus Pappobolus based on species that have a pappus of numerous caducous awns.[5] It was only during the work of Panero on the genus that the congeneric nature of plants of the two pappus types was recognized, and this has subsequently been supported by both molecular phylogenetic studies [6] and phytochemical analyses.[7] Subsequent studies have shown that the genus is related to members of the subtribe Helianthinae that occur in Mexico, and it is likely that migration into South America only occurred following the closure of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago.[8] Thus, the genus has exhibited an amazing burst of radiation in producing the relatively large number of species, a result in part that reflects the highly dissected montane topography of the Andean region.


Pappobolus acuminatus (S.F.Blake) Panero
Pappobolus acutifolius (S.F.Blake) Panero
Pappobolus amoenus Panero
Pappobolus argenteus (HBK) Panero
Pappobolus decumbens Panero
Pappobolus discolor (S.F.Blake) Panero
Pappobolus ecuadoriensis Panero
Pappobolus hutchisonii (H.Rob.) Panero
Pappobolus hypargyreus (H Rob.) Panero
Pappobolus imbaburensis (Hieronymus) Panero
Pappobolus jelskii (Hieronymus) Panero
Pappobolus lanatus (Heiser) Panero
Pappobolus lehmannii (Hieronymus) Panero
Pappobolus lodicatus (Cuatr.) Panero
Pappobolus nigrescens (Heiser) Panero
Pappobolus sagasteguii (H.Rob.) Panero
Pappobolus senex (S.F.Blake) Panero
Pappobolus smithii (Ferreyra) Panero
Pappobolus stuebelii (Hieronymus) Panero
Pappobolus subniveus (S.F.Blake) Panero
Pappobolus szyszylowiczii (Hieronymus) Panero
Pappobolus verbesinioides (HBK) Panero
Pappobolus viridior (S.F.Blake) Panero


Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist Archived 2014-11-06 at archive.today
Panero, J. L. 1992. Systematics of Pappobolus (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Systematic Botany Monographs 36: 1-195.
Tropicos, Pappobolus S.F. Blake
Robinson, H. 1979. Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). XVIII. A new genus Helianthopsis. Phytologia 44: 257-269.
S. F. Blake. 1916. Pappobolus macranthus. Hooker's Icones Plantarum 31: plate 3057.
Schilling, E. E. and R. K. Jansen. 1989. Restriction fragment analysis of[chloroplast DNA and the stystemics of Viguiera and related genera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) American Journal of Botany 76: 1771-1780.
Spring, O., J. L. Panero, and E. E. Schilling. Chemotaxonomic analysis of Pappobolus (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 20: 671-684
Schilling, E. E., J. L. Panero, and U. H. Eliasson. 1994. Evidence from DNA restriction site analysis on the relationships of Scalesia (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). American Journal of Botany 81: 248—254.

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